Table 4.

Associations of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with rapid loss in eGFR, incident CKD, and incident albuminuria

Baseline 25(OH)D (per 10 ng/ml unit)Rapid eGFR DeclineIncident CKDIncident Albuminuria
Participants in Analysis (n)OR (95% CI)P ValueParticipants in Analysis (n)OR (95% CI)P ValueParticipants in Analysis (n)OR (95% CI)P Value
All participants42804098
 Model 1 unadjusted0.76 (0.66 to 0.88)<0.0011.10 (0.93 to 1.30)0.26
 Model 2a0.81 (0.70 to 0.95)0.0081.14 (0.95 to 1.38)0.16
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR at baseline0.82 (0.71 to 0.96)0.011.17 (0.97 to 1.42)0.09
 Model 2a + adjusted for eGFR at baseline0.92 (0.79 to 1.07)0.290.96 (0.79 to 1.17)0.69
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR and eGFR at baseline0.93 (0.79 to 1.08)0.330.99 (0.81 to 1.21)0.91
Participants without albuminuria (ACR <30 mg/g) at baseline404838934048
 Model 1 unadjusted0.78 (0.67 to 0.90)<0.0011.14 (0.96 to 1.34)0.140.88 (0.73 to 1.05)0.16
 Model 2a0.81 (0.69 to 0.95)0.011.15 (0.94 to 1.40)0.180.98 (0.81 to 1.19)0.86
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR at baseline0.82 (0.70 to 0.96)0.011.16 (0.95 to 1.41)0.151.05 (0.86 to 1.29)0.61
 Model 2a + adjusted for eGFR at baseline0.93 (0.79 to 1.09)0.390.96 (0.78 to 1.18)0.690.97 (0.80 to 1.18)0.79
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR and eGFR at baseline0.93 (0.79 to 1.09)0.380.97 (0.78 to 1.20)0.781.03 (0.84 to 1.26)0.78
Participants with albuminuria (ACR ≥30 mg/g) at baseline232205
 Model 1 unadjusted0.69 (0.42 to 1.12)0.140.99 (0.60 to 1.63)0.98
 Model 2a0.74 (0.42 to 1.30)0.291.20 (0.62 to 2.33)0.59
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR at baseline0.74 (0.41 to 1.32)0.301.35 (0.66 to 2.75)0.41
 Model 2a + adjusted for eGFR at baseline0.78 (0.44 to 1.40)0.401.03 (0.51 to 2.09)0.94
 Model 2a + adjusted for log ACR and eGFR at baseline0.78 (0.43 to 1.42)0.421.21 (0.58 to 2.54)0.61
  • Rapid eGFR decline was defined a priori as an annual loss >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Incident CKD was defined as new CKD (i.e., eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at follow-up among participants without CKD (i.e., eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio

  • a Model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, oral contraceptives (women), waist circumference, albumin-corrected calcium, vitamin D supplements or medications, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol.