Table 2.

Kidney phenotypes and outcomes, by vitamin D status (n=4280)

VariableAllSufficient: 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mlInsufficient: 25(OH)D 20–29.9 ng/mlDeficient: 25(OH)D <20 ng/mlP Value
Mean annual change in eGFR±SD (ml/min per 1.73 m2)−0.57±1.78−0.26±1.82−0.46±1.70−0.71±1.80<0.001
Rapid eGFR decline (%)6.74.55.48.1<0.001
Incident CKD (%)4.45.64.54.00.26
Incident albuminuria (%)4.14.33.74.30.68
  • Rapid eGFR decline was defined a priori as an annual loss >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Incident CKD was defined as new CKD (i.e., eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at follow-up among participants without CKD (i.e., eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. Incident albuminuria defined as new albuminuria (i.e., ACR≥30 mg/g) at follow-up among participants without albuminuria (i.e., ACR<30 mg/g) at baseline. 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D.