Table 2.

Urinary metabolite/creatinine ratios with a significant change after DSR

MetaboliteBiologic Role/ Metabolic PathwayLow Sodium (AU)Typical Sodium (AU)Fold Change with DSRP Value
Methylmalonic acidMalonic acid derivative; vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein; metabolite of homocysteine2.23E−3±8.79E−39.46E−4±3.87E−32.40.01
SuccinateKrebs cycle intermediate; donates electrons to the ETC1.74E−3±6.74E−37.67E−4±2.9E−32.30.01
Methionine sulfoxideMethylation; biomarker of oxidative stress1.78E−5±5.27E−58.07E−6±2.19E−52.20.01
S-adenosyl-l-homocysteineIntermediate precursor of homocysteine, which is associated with increased cardiovascular risk2.32E−5±6.12E−51.25E−5±3.27E−51.90.01
GlycerophosphocholineCholine derivative; osmolyte (counteracts urea and other macromolecules)2.06E−4±5.27E−41.29E−4±3.01E−41.60.03
d-gluconate/-acidFound naturally in fruit, honey, and wine; regulates acidity2.73E−7±7.67E−34.79E−3±6.43E−31.6<0.001
SerineNonessential amino acid; in many biologic pathways7.73E−4±1.53E−35.16E-4±1.03E−31.50.05
AsparagineNonessential amino acid; required for nervous system; role in synthesis of ammonia3.13E−4±4.96E−42.15E−4±3.70E−41.5<0.001
Deoxyadenosine monophosphateDerivative of ATP; monomer in DNA8.19E−4±6.97E−46.19E−4±5.15E−41.30.02
6-phospho-d-glucono-1,5-lactoneIntermediate in pentose phosphate pathway2.44E−5±1.26E−33.02E−5±1.74E−30.80.04
  • Data are presented as means±SD. Area is normalized to urinary creatinine and the internal standard (methionine-d3) and presented as arbitrary units. Deoxyadenosine monophosphate and 6-phospho-d-glucono-1,5-lactone were not confirmed, because the percent change (before the normalization to creatinine) did not exceed the prespecified clinically significant threshold of >40% change (these values are presented as integrated area). AU, arbitrary unit; DSR, dietary sodium restriction; ETC, electron transport chain.