Table 3.

Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the association of change in pulse pressure categories (reference: ≥–5 to <5 mmHg) with cardiovascular mortality using time-varying Cox regression analyses

∆ Pulse pressure (mmHg)Minimally SBP Adjusted (n=98,577)SBP and Case Mix Adjusted (n=98,577)SBP and Case Mix and MICS Adjusted (n=98,577)
HR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP Value
<–251.121.02 to 1.230.020.990.90 to 1.090.901.070.97 to 1.180.18
≥–25 to <-150.860.78 to 0.94<0.0010.810.74 to 0.89<0.0010.880.80 to 0.960.01
≥–15 to <-50.850.79 to 0.92<0.0010.840.78 to 0.91<0.0010.900.84 to 0.970.01
≥–5 to <5ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
5 to <151.060.99 to 1.140.101.040.97 to 1.120.281.000.93 to 1.071.00
15 to <251.301.19 to 1.41<0.0011.251.15 to 1.36<0.0011.181.08 to 1.28<0.001
≥251.121.01 to 1.240.041.060.95 to 1.180.291.020.92 to 1.140.71
∆ Pulse Pressure (mmHg)Minimally MAP Adjusted (n=98,577)MAP and Case Mix Adjusted (n=98,577)MAP and Case Mix and MICS Adjusted (n=98,577)
HR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP Value
<–250.900.82 to 0.990.030.820.75 to 0.90<0.0010.920.84 to 1.010.09
≥–25 to <-150.770.71 to 0.85<0.0010.730.67 to 0.80<0.0010.810.74 to 0.89<0.001
≥–15 to <-50.820.76 to 0.88<0.0010.800.75 to 0.87<0.0010.870.81 to 0.93<0.001
≥–5 to <5ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
5 to <151.091.02 to 1.170.021.071.00 to 1.150.051.020.95 to 1.100.52
15 to <251.361.25 to 1.47<0.0011.321.21 to 1.43<0.0011.231.13 to 1.34<0.001
≥251.221.09 to 1.35<0.0011.171.05 to 1.300.0051.090.98 to 1.220.10
  • Minimally adjusted model included adjustment for entry calendar quarter and predialysis SBP or predialysis MAP. Case mix–adjusted model included adjustment for all covariates in the minimally adjusted model plus age, sex, race/ethnicity, presence of diabetes mellitus, nine preexisting comorbidities, history of tobacco smoking, dialysis duration categories, primary insurance, types of vascular access, dialysis dose as indicated by single pool Kt/V, and ultrafiltration percentage. Case mix and MICS adjusted for covariates in the case mix–adjusted model plus body mass index, serum levels of albumin, creatinine, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, and white blood cells, and lymphocyte percentage. ∆ Pulse pressure, postdialysis pulse pressure minus predialysis pulse pressure; SBP, systolic BP; HR, hazard ratio; MAP, mean arterial BP; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; MICS, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome.