Table 1.

Definition of end points

TermDefinition
BiomarkerPhysiologic, pathologic, or anatomic measure that is thought to relate to some aspect of normal or pathologic biologic process
Surrogate end pointBiomarker that is a laboratory measurement or physical sign used in therapeutic trials as a substitute for a clinically meaningful end point that is expected to predict the effect of the therapy
Clinical benefit end pointVariable that reflects how a patient feels, functions, or survives
  • Reprinted from reference 20, with permission.