Table 3.

Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for mortality (overall and pre-ESRD mortality) according to glycated hemoglobin values, after exclusion of 72 participants who developed diabetes mellitus over time (n=1093)

Overall Mortality
Cox Model TypeTime-Fixed CovariatesTime-Dependent Covariatesb
HbA1c (%)Crude HRFully Adjusted HRaCrude HRFully Adjusted HRa
Tertiles
 1 (<5.3)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 2 (5.3–5.7)1.16 (0.68 to 2.00)1.34 (0.74 to 2.41)1.46 (0.86 to 2.49)1.44 (0.81 to 2.56)
 3 (5.7–6.4)2.40 (1.47 to 3.92)2.08 (1.21 to 3.59)2.30 (1.36 to 3.90)1.75 (0.97 to 3.16)
P value for trend<0.0010.010.0020.07
Continuous2.10 (1.35 to 3.27)1.80 (1.14 to 2.86)2.00 (1.21 to 3.30)1.49 (0.87 to 2.56)
P value0.0010.010.010.14
Pre-ESRD Mortality
Cox Model TypeTime-Fixed CovariatesTime-Dependent Covariatesb
HbA1c (%)Crude HRFully Adjusted HRaCrude HRFully Adjusted HRa
Tertiles
 1 (<5.3)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
 2 (5.3–5.7)1.68 (0.83 to 3.41)1.83 (0.85 to 3.94)2.22 (1.04 to 4.72)2.08 (0.94 to 4.63)
 3 (5.7–6.4)2.96 (1.52 to 5.78)2.52 (1.21 to 5.27)3.28 (1.55 to 6.92)2.62 (1.16 to 5.91)
P value for trend<0.0010.010.0010.02
Continuous2.44 (1.38 to 4.31)1.99 (1.09 to 3.62)2.53 (1.34 to 4.79)1.84 (0.93 to 3.63)
P value0.0020.020.0040.08
  • HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; ref, reference; HR, hazard ratio.

  • a Adjusted for measured GFR, age, sex, body mass index (<19, 20–24, 25–29, ≥30), race (black/other), urinary protein to creatinine ratio (log), elevated BP (>140/90 mmHg), history of cardiovascular disease (yes or no), smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, or never smoker), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or antireceptor blocker treatment, and serum albumin (>3.5 g/dl or <3.5 g/dl).

  • b Updated mean of glycated hemoglobin is studied in time-dependent covariates Cox models. Values of other biologic parameters and treatments were updated at each visit for adjustment variables.