Table 2.

Characteristics of all CKD cases and of CKD cases that were detected or undetected by the three screening approaches

VariableAll
(n=263)Screening Approaches
Approach 1 (CVD Risk)Approach 2 (CVD Risk or Age >60 yr)Approach 3 (CVD Risk or Low SES)
Detected: n=94 (36%)Undetected: n=169 (64%)P ValueDetected: n=156 (59%)Undetected: n=107 (41%)P ValueDetected: n=132 (51%)Undetected: n=131 (49%)P Value
Age (yr)57±1264±8.553±13<0.00166±6.845±8.9<0.00163±9.455±14<0.001
Men (%)5762540.2162500.0561520.14
White (%)9595950.2795950.3395950.96
Body mass index (kg/m2)28±4.728±3.927±5.00.6428±4.127±5.30.0928±4.427±4.80.004
Cholesterol (mg/dl)227.9±41.7227.5±42.6228.1±42.10.74231.7±42.3223.9±42.50.06227.8±38.6227.1±46.30.86
Smoking (%)3925460.00130500.00335420.08
Known (%)
 Hypertension25680.0<0.001420.0<0.001490.0<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus2.46.50.00.0014.00.00.044.70.00.02
 CVD history11270.0<0.001180.0<0.001210.0<0.001
Unknown (%)
  Hypertension351148<0.00132360.0829410.03
 Diabetes mellitus9.76.4120.176.6140.057.6120.26
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)83±2272±1889±22<0.00172±1897±19<0.00175±1990±22<0.001
eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (%)273818<0.001413.0<0.0013318<0.001
UAE (mg/24 hr)48 (35–247)60 (37–128)55 (37–93)0.0258 (36–115)56 (38–99)<0.00162 (37–127)55 (37–93)0.05
UAE≥30 mg/24 hr (%)8374880.1974920.0478870.21
  • Normally distributed variables are presented as mean ±SD. Skewed variables are presented as median (interquartile range). CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; SES, socioeconomic status; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; UAE, urinary albumin excretion.