Table 3.

Results of univariate analyses

Threshold ValueSurvivalProgression to ESRDa
Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P ValueHazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
Age
 >65 yr4.87 (3.62 to 6.55)<0.0010.63 (0.48 to 0.84)0.001
Sex
 Women0.74 (0.58 to 0.95)0.021.11 (0.84 to 1.47)0.47
CVD
 Yes2.70 (2.12 to 3.43)<0.0010.82 (0.62 to 1.09)0.17
Diabetes
 Yes1.74 (1.38 to 2.20)<0.0011.23 (0.92 to 1.65)0.16
Smoking history
 Former1.89 (1.42 to 2.50)<0.0011.40 (0.93 to 2.10)0.11
 Current1.78 (1.22 to 2.61)0.0030.92 (0.67 to 1.25)0.59
Systolic BP
 >130 mmHg1.33 (1.04 to 1.70)0.021.42 (1.06 to 1.91)0.02
Diastolic BP
 <80 mmHg1.50 (1.17 to 1.93)0.0010.79 (0.59 to 1.05)0.10
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
 >30ReferentReferent
 15–301.86 (1.45 to 2.38)<0.0014.14 (2.78 to 6.20)<0.001
 <151.62 (1.09 to 2.41)0.0216.91 (10.90 to 26.31)<0.001
Phosphate
 >4.65 mg/dl1.17 (0.81 to 1.69)0.403.44 (2.37 to 4.99)<0.001
Potassium
 <3.5 mmol/L0.80 (0.26 to 2.49)0.701.90 (1.39 to 2.61)<0.001
Sodium
 <135 mmol/L1.70 (0.93 to 3.11)0.080.80 (0.30 to 2.16)0.66
Corrected calcium
 <8.4 mg/dl0.89 (0.53 to 1.50)0.661.89 (1.16 to 3.07)0.01
Parathyroid hormone
 >65 mg/L1.45 (1.10 to 1.90)0.012.24 (1.59 to 3.15)<0.001
Total cholesterol
 <193 mg/dl1.91 (1.29 to 2.82)0.0011.55 (1.02 to 2.36)0.04
Hemoglobin
 <130 g/L1.51 (1.17 to 1.94)0.0012.13 (1.55 to 2.92)<0.001
Albumin
 <35 g/L1.47 (0.82 to 2.61)0.202.25 (1.22 to 4.13)0.01
PCr
 >30 mg/mmol1.09 (0.82 to 1.44)0.543.56 (2.27 to 5.57)<0.001
ESR
 >7 ml/h1.54 (0.99 to 2.41)0.062.24 (1.22 to 4.13)0.01
κFLC
 >37.4 mg/L2.10 (1.64 to 2.67)<0.0015.41 (3.88 to 7.56)<0.001
λFLC
 >32.1 mg/L2.11 (1.65 to 2.69)<0.0015.62 (4.01 to 7.89)<0.001
cFLC
 >68.9 mg/L2.20 (1.72 to 2.81)<0.0015.98 (4.25 to 8.42)<0.001
cFLC (mg/L)
 Quartile 1: <49.4ReferentReferenta
 Quartile 2: 49.4–68.81.03 (0.69 to 1.53)0.90Referenta
 Quartile 3: 68.9–100.71.87 (1.30 to 2.69)<0.0013.42 (2.20 to 5.30)<0.001
 Quartile 4: >100.72.62 (1.84 to 3.71)<0.0018.74 (5.85 to 13.06)<0.001
  • Where PCr data were not available, PCr was estimated from 24-h proteinuria on the basis of the assumption that a PCr of 100 mg/mmol is approximately 1 g per 24-h proteinuria. CVD, cardiovascular disease; PCr, protein-to-creatinine ratio; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FLC, free light chain; cFLC, combined free light chain.

  • a For assessment of cFLC quartile in relation to RRT, only two of 218 patients in the lowest quartile reached the end point; therefore, a composite of the lowest two quartiles formed the referent category.