Table 4.

Multivariable analysis examining covariates associated with a higher likelihood of arteriovenous access creation before the initiation of hemodialysis (adjusting for correlated outcomes within each dialysis facility)

Variable/LevelAdjusted Odds Ratio95% Confidence Interval
Age group (yr)
 <651.00Reference
 65–741.251.13 to 1.39
 75–841.181.06 to 1.31
 85+0.840.70 to 1.02
Men1.301.20 to 1.41
Race
 Asian0.890.75 to 1.06
 Black0.810.67 to 0.98
 Other0.900.79 to 1.03
 Unknown0.980.80 to 1.20
 White1.00Reference
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.50.870.68 to 1.11
 18.5–24.91.00Reference
 25–29.91.201.08 to 1.34
 ≥301.361.23 to 1.52
Year of dialysis start
 2001–20031.00Reference
 2004–20060.740.67 to 0.81
 2007–20100.530.49 to 0.59
Laboratory valuesa
 Hemoglobin, g/L1.161.12 to 1.19
 Albumin, g/L1.541.42 to 1.67
Primary etiology of ESKD diagnosis
 Diabetes1.100.91 to 1.32
 GN1.00Reference
 Polycystic kidney disease2.271.81 to 2.86
 Renal vascular disease0.860.74 to 1.00
 Other0.740.62 to 0.87
 Unknown0.750.63 to 0.89
Comorbidity
 Peripheral vascular disease1.401.27 to 1.54
 Coronary artery diseaseb0.850.77 to 0.94
 CHF0.680.62 to 0.75
 Cerebrovascular disease0.810.72 to 0.90
 Diabetes0.920.80 to 1.06
 Leukemia0.770.64 to 0.91
 Lymphoma0.730.40 to 1.36
 Other cancerc0.990.90 to 1.09
 Gastric ulcer0.950.82 to 1.10
 Liver disease0.900.77 to 1.05
 Dementia0.790.67 to 0.92
 Hypertension1.361.15 to 1.60
 Lung disease (COPD)0.900.80 to 1.00
 Smokers0.830.73 to 0.95
 Other serious life-threatening diseased0.730.63 to 0.84
Late referrale0.180.15 to 0.20
Rural resident 0.770.67 to 0.87
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • a Last laboratory values before starting hemodialysis.

  • b Coronary artery disease was determined from the presence of a history of at least one of the following: coronary artery bypass grafting, previous myocardial infarction, or previous angina.

  • c Other cancer included all other types of cancer (excluding skin cancer but including melanoma).

  • d Other serious illness that may shorten life expectancy <5 years.

  • e Late referral defined as first seen by a nephrologist <90 days before initiation of dialysis.