Table 1.

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding defined by modified stringent and lenient criteria

1. Stringent criteria: diagnosis in group A
2. Lenient criteria: one of the following:
 Any diagnosis in group A
 Any diagnosis in group B (hematemesis/GI bleeding) plus at least one in group C (upper GI illness)
 Any diagnosis in group B (hematemesis/GI bleeding) plus upper gastrointestinal endoscopy performed (Taiwan procedure codes: 28015C, 28016C, 28010B)
3. Exclude diagnosis in group D and associated endoscopic procedure (47025B, 47067B, 47078B)
Group A: Specific diagnosis for nonvariceal UGIB, according to ICD-9 code
 530.21: Ulcer of esophagus with bleeding
 530.7: Gastroesophageal laceration-hemorrhage syndrome (Mallory–Weiss syndrome)
 530.82: Esophageal hemorrhage
 531.0×: Gastric ulcer, acute with hemorrhage
 531.2×: Gastric ulcer, acute with hemorrhage and perforation
 531.4×: Gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage
 531.6×: Gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage and perforation
 532.0×: Duodenal ulcer, acute with hemorrhage
 532.2×: Duodenal ulcer, acute with hemorrhage and perforation
 532.4×: Duodenal ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage
 532.6×: Duodenal ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage and perforation
 533.0×: Peptic ulcer, acute with hemorrhage
 533.2×: Peptic ulcer, acute with hemorrhage and perforation
 533.4×: Peptic ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage
 533.6×: Peptic ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage and perforation
 534.0×: Gastrojejunal ulcer, acute with hemorrhage
 534.2×: Gastrojejunal ulcer, acute with hemorrhage and perforation
 534.4×: Gastrojejunal ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage
 534.6×: Gastrojejunal ulcer, chronic or unspecified with hemorrhage and perforation
 535. × 1: Gastritis and duodenitis with hemorrhage
 537.83: Angiodysplasia of stomach and duodenum with hemorrhage
 537.84: Dieulafoy lesion (hemorrhagic) of stomach and duodenum
Group B: Diagnosis for gastrointestinal bleeding but not specific for location, according to ICD-9 code
 578.0: Hematemesis
 578.×: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Group C: Diagnosis for upper gastrointestinal disease but not specific for bleeding, according to ICD-9 code
 530–538: Disease of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
Group D: Diagnosis specific for esophageal variceal bleeding
 456.0: Esophageal varices with bleeding
 456.2: Esophageal varices in diseases classified elsewhere with bleeding
Taiwan procedure codes
 28010B: Enteroscopy
 28015C: Esophagoscopy
 28016C: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, exam
 47025B: Esophageal injection of sclerosing therapy
 47043B: Endoscopic control of gastric or duodenal bleeding
 47067B: Endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation
 47078B: Gastric variceal sclerosing therapy
  • GI, gastrointestinal; UGIB, upper gastrointestinal bleeding; ICD-9, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision.