Table 3.

Long-term outcomes and conditions pertinent to outcome after discharge

VariableAKI-Recovery Group (n=4565)Non-AKI Group (n=4565)P Value
Medications
 PPI1288 (28.2)770 (16.9)<0.001
 Histamine-2 receptor antagonist989 (21.7)991 (21.7)0.98
 Corticosteroids1979 (43.4)1752 (38.4)<0.001
 Long-term usea of steroids289 (6.3)225 (4.9)0.004
 NSAIDs2294 (50.3)2577 (56.5)<0.001
 Long-term usea of NSAIDs379 (8.3)498 (10.9)<0.001
 Aspirin1051 (23)1141 (25)0.03
 Long-term usea of aspirin393 (8.6)550 (12.0)<0.001
 Clopidogrel624 (13.7)576 (12.6)0.15
 Warfarin421 (9.2)248 (5.4)<0.001
 Heparin988 (21.6)454 (9.9)<0.001
 Low-molecular-weight heparin259 (5.7)152 (3.3)<0.001
 Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy8 (0.2)6 (0.1)0.79
Renal status within 0–90 d of discharge<0.001
 CKD578 (12.7)116 (2.5)
 Advanced CKD87 (1.9)7 (0.2)
 ESRDb72 (1.6)0 (0)
Renal status during long-term follow-up<0.001
 CKD751 (16.5)314 (6.9)
 Advanced CKD101 (2.2)33 (0.7)
 ESRD896 (19.6)57 (1.2)
Comorbidities during long-term follow-up
 Myocardial infarction41 (0.9)20 (0.4)0.01
 Atrial fibrillation57 (1.2)76 (1.7)0.12
Outcomes
 UGIB event (lenient criterion)949 (20.8)706 (15.5)<0.001
 UGIB event (stringent criterion)702 (15.4)464 (10.2)<0.001
  Median time after discharge (yr)1.371.220.41
  PUD with hemorrhage465 (66.2)240 (51.7)<0.001
   Gastric ulcer bleeding252 (35.9)139 (30.0)
   Duodenal ulcer bleeding149 (21.2)62 (13.4)
 Mortality2557 (56.0)1496 (32.8)<0.001
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are the number (percentage) of participants. PPI, proton-pump inhibitor; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PUD, peptic ulcer disease.

  • a Defined as drug prescription in 3 consecutive months.

  • b Defined by the commencement dates of long-term dialysis at 31–90 days of discharge.