Table 2.

Univariate determinants of 5-year mortality in participants with CKD in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n=828)

VariableNo. of DeathsNo. at RiskMortality Rate (%/yr)Unadjusted Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
Age (per SD=5-yr increase)2838288.131.53 (1.38 to 1.69)<0.001
Sex
 Women1324596.591.00
 Men15136910.221.58 (1.25 to 1.99)<0.001
Race
 White2426828.491.32 (0.95 to 1.83)0.10
 African American411466.511.00
Kidney function
 eGFR creatinine (per SD=11 ml/min per 1.73 m2 lower)2838288.131.40 (1.27 to 1.55)<0.001
 Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/g)
   ≤305751526.031.00
  >3025313113.622.33 (1.84 to 2.94)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)
  ≤20173413.591.42 (0.85 to 2.37)0.20
 20.1–24.91022579.811.00
 25.0–29.91053546.910.70 (0.53 to 0.92)<0.01
  ≥30.0591837.410.75 (0.54 to 1.03)0.08
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 <110672911.061.00
 110–1394051287.450.67 (0.45 to 0.99)0.05
  ≥1403561268.400.75 (0.50 to 1.13)0.20
Hypertension medications2196158.511.21 (0.91 to 1.60)0.20
Diabetes6814012.691.77 (1.35 to 2.33)<0.001
Smoking
 Never1123916.671.00
 Former1483859.311.41 (1.10 to 1.80)<0.01
 Current235210.871.65 (1.05 to 2.58)0.03
Cholesterol (per SD=43 mg/dl higher)2838288.130.85 (0.73 to 0.96)0.01
Lipid-lowering medications341156.780.81 (0.56 to 1.15)0.20
Prevalent coronary heart disease11727310.811.58 (1.25 to 2.01)<0.001
Prevalent heart failure9214419.233.19 (2.49 to 4.09)<0.001
Prevalent stroke447915.402.12 (1.54 to 2.93)<0.001
Serum albumin (g/dl)
 >3.701825697.471.00
 ≤3.701012599.661.31 (1.02 to 1.67)0.03
Change in eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2 change from years 5 to 9)2838288.131.08 (0.96 to 1.21)0.20