Table 4.

Adjusted hazards ratios for outcomes on RRT, patients with end-stage lupus nephritis (n=16,650)

CharacteristicReferenceDeath (42.6%)Listing for Transplant (45.3%)Transplantation
(28.7%)
Year of first RRT
 1995–20002001–20051.04 (0.99 to 1.1)a0.8 (0.76 to 0.85)1.08 (1.01 to 1.15)b
 2006–20102001–20050.98 (0.92 to 1.05)a1.31 (1.23 to 1.39)0.89 (0.82 to 0.96)c
Age
 <20 yr<200.93 (0.83 to 1.05)a0.88 (0.8 to 0.96)c0.85 (0.76 to 0.94)c
 20–29 yr<201.14 (1.01 to 1.27)b0.84 (0.77 to 0.91)0.72 (0.65 to 0.8)
 30–44 yr<202.22 (1.98 to 2.48)0.59 (0.54 to 0.65)0.53 (0.48 to 0.6)
 45–64 yr<205.75 (5.08 to 6.51)0.15 (0.12 to 0.19)0.12 (0.09 to 0.16)
FemaleMale0.98 (0.92 to 1.04)a0.99 (0.93 to 1.06)a0.91 (0.85 to 0.98)b
Race/ethnicity
 African AmericanWhite1.23 (1.17 to 1.3)1.11 (1.05 to 1.18)0.54 (0.51 to 0.58)
 OtherWhite0.84 (0.76 to 0.93)1.13 (1.03 to 1.23)c0.69 (0.62 to 0.76)
 Hispanic ethnicityNon-Hispanic0.82 (0.76 to 0.88)1.08 (1.01 to 1.16)b0.7 (0.65 to 0.76)
Ischemic heart diseaseAbsent1.53 (1.41 to 1.65)0.83 (0.73 to 0.95)c0.74 (0.62 to 0.87)
Peripheral vascular diseaseAbsent1.75 (1.57 to 1.94)0.85 (0.71 to 1.02)a0.77 (0.62 to 0.97)b
Cerebrovascular diseaseAbsent1.65 (1.51 to 1.81)0.74 (0.64 to 0.85)0.72 (0.61 to 0.85)
DiabetesAbsent1.43 (1.32 to 1.54)0.79 (0.71 to 0.88)0.66 (0.57 to 0.76)
SmokingAbsent1.63 (1.47 to 1.81)0.65 (0.56 to 0.76)0.65 (0.54 to 0.78)
Alcohol abuseAbsent1.77 (1.35 to 2.31)0.31 (0.17 to 0.56)0.36 (0.18 to 0.73)c
Drug abuseAbsent2.28 (1.83 to 2.85)0.27 (0.16 to 0.44)0.16 (0.06 to 0.38)
Initial mode of RRT
 Peritoneal dialysisHemodialysis0.79 (0.74 to 0.86)1.42 (1.32 to 1.52)1.57 (1.46 to 1.69)
 TransplantHemodialysis0.12 (0.09 to 0.17)
Initial hemodialysis access
 GraftFistula1.89 (1.33 to 2.7)0.64 (0.45 to 0.9)b0.39 (0.22 to 0.69)c
 CatheterFistula1.8 (1.44 to 2.25)0.75 (0.63 to 0.9)c0.61 (0.49 to 0.76)
Nephrology care≤ 12 mo>121.46 (1.3 to 1.65)0.8 (0.73 to 0.87)0.63 (0.56 to 0.72)
eGFR>15 ml/min per 1.73 m2≤151.38 (1.27 to 1.49)0.63 (0.58 to 0.69)0.5 (0.44 to 0.56)
Body mass index≥ 30 kg/m2<301.01 (0.95 to 1.07)a0.88 (0.83 to 0.94)0.75 (0.7 to 0.81)
Serum albumin< 3.5 g/dl≥3.51.67 (1.57 to 1.79)0.92 (0.86 to 0.97)c0.78 (0.72 to 0.83)
Serum hemoglobin≥ 9 g/dl<90.94 (0.89 to 0.99)b0.93 (0.88 to 0.98)c1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)a
  • Hazards ratios are adjusted for age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity and presented with 95% CIs in parentheses; all variables in the first column were used as candidate variables, and age, sex, race, and ethnicity were used as adjustment variables, provided they were not also the candidate variable, in which case they were removed as adjustment variables. P<0.001 unless otherwise stated.

  • a P≥0.05.

  • b 0.01≤P<0.05.

  • c 0.001≤P<0.01.