Table 5.

Exposure to aristolochic acid on the basis of differences in farming practices and dietary habits presently and 15–30 years ago

Question/AnswerPast (15–30 years ago) N (%)Present N (%)
ENNon-ENBosnian ImmigrantP valueENNon-ENBosnian ImmigrantP value
Did/do you have farming fields?
 Yes886 (91.2)190 (88.8)46 (73)a,b<0.0011119 (81.1)214 (77.3)63 (78.8)0.32
Did/do you grow wheat in your farming fields?
 Yes838 (95.1)180 (94.7)36 (76.6)a,b<0.001789 (71)156 (73.6)29 (45.3)a,b<0.001
Were/are farming fields flooded?
 Yes388 (45.4)97 (51.3)10 (24.4)a,b<0.01277 (27.5)74 (35.6)a19 (34.5)0.05
Did/do you observe Aristolochia plants in your fields?
 Yes581 (67.8)98 (51.9)a18 (41.9)a<0.001418 (40)78 (37.9)26 (41.9)0.79
Did/do you observe Aristolochia seeds among wheat seeds?
 Yes285 (35.6)25 (14.5)a2 (6.1)a<0.00168 (8.3)10 (6)2 (4.7)0.45
Did/do you bake bread?
 Yes916 (92.6)206 (95.4)50 (74.6)a,b0.001553 (42.5)105 (39)43 (55.1)a,b0.04
If yes, where did/do you get the flour?
 Grind wheat at home114 (12.4)16 (7.8)9 (18)<0.00114 (2.6)2 (2)2 (4.8)0.001
 Miller770 (84.1)176 (86.3)28 (56)410 (77.4)63 (62.4)23 (54.8)
 Store32 (3.5)12 (5.9)13 (26)106 (20)36 (35.6)17 (40.5)
Did/do you buy bread rather than bake?
 Yes147 (14.8)20 (9.3)25 (38.5)a,b<0.0011191 (86.2)231 (83.1)62 (75.6)a,b0.02
Did you eat more or less bread 20 years ago compared with today?
 More than now628 (64.3)140 (65.1)36 (57.1)0.30
 Less than now79 (8.1)19 (8.8)10 (5.9)
 About the same269 (27.6)56 (26)17 (27)
  • a Significant difference (P<0.05) with endemic villages group.

  • b Significant difference (P<0.05) with control nonendemic villages group.