Table 6.

Independent predictors of proximal tubule damage

Independent PredictorOR (95% CI)P value
Living in EN village (yes)3.97 (1.78 to 8.85)0.001
Family/household history for EN (positive)2.74 (1.77 to 4.24)<0.001
Past aristolochic acid exposure (yes)1.64 (1.04 to 2.58)0.03
Time of exposure 30–15 yr ago (yes)1.59 (0.46 to 5.42)0.57
Present aristolochic acid exposure (yes)1.31 (0.75 to 2.30)0.33
Immigrant status (yes)0.40 (0.19 to 0.86)0.02
  • Proximal tubule damage defined as α-1 microglobulin level corrected for urine creatinine >31.5 mg/g. Covariates in the multivariate logistic regression models included age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.