Table 1.

Criteria for diagnosis of endemic nephropathy and classification of villagers from endemic areas

Diagnostic CriteriaAffected Patients (Diseased)Suspected of Having ENAt High RiskOthers
(a) Residence in an endemic household>15 yr/positive family history++++++
(b) Tubular proteinuria+++
(c) Anemia++
(d) Decreased eGFR++
(e) UTUC++
  • Tubular proteinuria indicates α-1 microglobulin level corrected for urine creatinine >31.5 mg/g and α-1 microglobulin level corrected for urine albumine to urine creatinine ratio≥0.91. Anemia indicates hemoglobin<12.0 g/dl for men and women ages >50 years old and <11.0 g/dl for women ages <50 years old. Decreased eGFR indicates eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Affected/diseased indicates a+b+c+d or a+b+c. Suspected of having endemic nephropathy (EN) indicates a+b, a+c+d, or a+e. At high risk indicates a. Others indicates other villagers without any relation to EN. UTUC, upper tract urothelial cancer (23). ACR indicates albumin-to-creatinine ratio.