Table 2.

Adjusted hazard ratios for death for patient-level factors, when stroke occurs at 12 months after cohort entry

VariableAHR (99% CI)P
Hemorrhagic stroke<0.001
 7 d after stroke25.4 (22.4 to 28.4)
 1 mo18.1 (15.5 to 20.9)
 3 mo9.9 (8.4 to 11.6)
 6 mo5.9 (5.0 to 7.0)
 12 mo3.3 (2.8 to 3.9)
 24 mo1.8 (1.5 to 2.1)
 36 mo1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)
Ischemic stroke<0.001
 7 d after stroke11.7 (10.2 to 13.1)
 1 mo9.8 (9.5 to 10.0)
 3 mo6.6 (6.4 to 6.7)
 6 mo4.7 (4.5 to 4.9)
 12 mo3.3 (3.1 to 3.4)
 24 mo2.2 (2.0 to 2.3)
 36 mo1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)
Age per year1.03 (1.03 to 1.03)<0.001
Male sex1.04 (1.01 to 1.08)<0.001
Race/ethnicity
 White1.0 (referent)
 African American0.78 (0.76 to 0.81)<0.001
 Hispanic0.68 (0.65 to 0.71)<0.001
 Other0.59 (0.54 to 0.63)<0.001
BMI category
 <20 kg/m21.30 (1.24 to 1.37)<0.001
 20–24.9 kg/m21.0 (referent)
 25–29.9 kg/m20.85 (0.81 to 0.88)<0.001
 ≥30 kg/m20.77 (0.74 to 0.80)<0.001
Smoker1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)0.001
Substance abuser1.23 (1.11 to 1.35)<0.001
Unemployed1.62 (1.37 to 1.92)<0.001
Inability to ambulate1.43 (1.33 to 1.53)<0.001
Inability to transfer1.24 (1.12 to 1.38)<0.001
In-center HDa0.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.11
Comorbidities
 HTN0.76 (0.73 to 0.80)<0.001
 DM1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.021
 Congestive heart failure1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease1.04 (1.00 to 1.08)0.009
 Peripheral vascular disease1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)<0.001
 Prior cerebrovascular accident1.17 (1.11 to 1.22)<0.001
Permanent AFb1.26 (1.16 to 1.36)<0.001
Permanent AF×timec1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)<0.001
Comorbidity scored
 0–31.0 (referent)
 4–61.16 (1.10 to 1.22)<0.001
 ≥71.22 (1.12 to 1.32)<0.001
  • As described in Materials and Methods, the cohort consisted of incident dialysis patients who survived at least 90 days after dialysis initiation. Thus, stroke 12 months after cohort entry represents individuals who had survived 15 months on dialysis. Adjusted hazard ratios for both stroke types at subsequent time points (e.g., 24 and 36 months) were generally quite similar; see text of Results for details. BMI, body mass index; HD, hemodialysis; HTN, hypertension; DM, diabetes mellitus; AF, atrial fibrillation; AHR, adjusted hazard ratio; 99% CI, 99% confidence interval.

  • a In-center hemodialysis is contrasted to self-care dialysis, which consists of home hemodialysis plus peritoneal dialysis.

  • b Because atrial fibrillation is treated as a time-dependent variable, this represents the association when atrial fibrillation occurs 12 months after cohort entry. Values were similar when other timepoints were selected.

  • c Represents the interaction of permanent atrial fibrillation with time.

  • d Comorbidity score is derived from an adapted form of the Liu Comorbidity Index.