Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of HIV-uninfected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study stratified by urine α1-microglobulin category

Characteristic1 (n=173)2 (n=57)3 (n=57)P Value
Range of α1m/cr (mg/g)Below detectable1.3–7.5>7.5
Baseline age (yr)38 (32–43)42 (36–46)42 (38–48)<0.001
Race
 African American99 (57%)41 (72%)37 (65%)0.31
 Caucasian20 (12%)6 (11%)6 (11%)
 Other54 (31%)10 (18%)14 (25%)
Cigarette smoking
 Current84 (49%)39 (68%)46 (81%)<0.001
 Past49 (28%)7 (12%)6 (11%)
 Never40 (23%)11 (19%)5 (9%)
Diabetes mellitus11 (6%)5 (9%)10 (18%)0.04
Hypertension39 (23%)11 (19%)30 (53%)<0.001
Antihypertensive use18 (10%)6 (11%)11 (19%)0.19
Menopause20 (12%)6 (11%)14 (25%)0.03
Hepatitis C23 (14%)16 (28%)23 (40%)<0.001
Current heroin use9 (5%)2 (4%)12 (21%)<0.001
LDL (mg/dl)107 (89–131)104 (84–128)100 (84–132)0.71
HDL (mg/dl)52 (44–63)49 (41–61)48 (39–59)0.29
Triglycerides (mg/dl)94 (71–141)107 (69–154)119 (87–156)0.08
Body mass index (kg/m2)29 (24–35)30 (26–34)29 (25–32)0.67
Waist circumference (cm)92 (80–103)95 (83–107)94 (81–99)0.55
Albuminuriaa15 (9%)6 (11%)12 (21%)0.04
eGFRCys (ml/min per 1.73 m2)106 (96–117)97 (87–112)97 (79–112)<0.001
eGFRCys<60 ml/min per 1.73 m21 (2%)5 (9%)0<0.001
Serum albumin (g/dl)4.1 (3.9–4.3)4.0 (3.8–4.2)4.0 (3.8–4.3)0.08
  • Data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges) or numbers (percentages). α1-Microglobulin is standardized to urine creatinine. Category 1 comprises all participants with undetectable urine α1-microglobulin.

  • a Defined as a positive urine dipstick result (≥1+) or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio>30 mg/g.