Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of HIV-infected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study stratified by urine α1-microglobulin category

Characteristic1 (n=358)2 (n=272)3 (n=273)P Value
Range of α1m/cr (mg/g)Below detectable1.2–10.2>10.2
Baseline age (yr)40 (35–44)40 (36–45)43 (38–48)<0.001
Race
 African American180 (50%)151 (56%)188 (69%)<0.001
 Caucasian92 (26%)46 (17%)37 (14%)
 Other86 (24%)75 (28%)48 (18%)
Cigarette smoking
 Current149 (42%)144 (53%)167 (61%)<0.001
 Past100 (28%)72 (26%)52 (19%)
 Never109 (30%)56 (21%)54 (20%)
Diabetes mellitus25 (7%)23 (8%)38 (14%)0.01
Hypertension72 (20%)68 (25%)85 (31%)<0.01
Antihypertensive use28 (8%)28 (10%)41 (15%)0.02
Menopause55 (16%)45 (17%)82 (31%)<0.001
Hepatitis C87 (25%)77 (28%)114 (42%)<0.001
Current heroin use11 (3%)12 (4%)20 (7%)0.04
LDL (mg/dl)107 (85–133)106 (80–136)95 (71–125)<0.001
HDL (mg/dl)44 (35–55)45 (37–57)42 (33–57)0.16
Triglycerides (mg/dl)135 (88–206)117 (89–179)142 (101–197)0.004
Body mass index (kg/m2)26 (24–31)27 (24–31)25 (23–31)0.02
Waist circumference (cm)88 (81–98)89 (80–100)87 (78–98)0.17
Current CD4 (cells/mm3)448 (282–647)386 (234–534)363 (195–548)<0.001
Nadir CD4 (cells/mm3)235 (131–348)214 (114–313)186 (85–294)0.001
History of AIDS148 (41%)135 (50%)158 (58%)<0.001
HIV viral load (copies/ml)
 ≤80126 (35%)77 (29%)71 (26%)<0.01
 81–199990 (25%)60 (22%)53 (19%)
 2000–999955 (15%)48 (18%)44 (16%)
 >10,00084 (24%)85 (31%)104 (38%)
Current HAART use221 (62%)153 (56%)155 (57%)0.30
Current NRTI use254 (71%)176 (65%)172 (63%)0.08
Current NNRTI use97 (27%)68 (25%)79 (29%)0.58
Current protease inhibitor use158 (44%)109 (40%)110 (40%)0.50
Albuminuriaa57 (16%)46 (17%)109 (40%)<0.001
eGFRCys (ml/min per 1.73 m2)97 (83–110)91 (80–105)76 (62–89)<0.001
eGFRCys<60 ml/min per 1.73 m215 (4%)10 (4%)59 (22%)<0.001
Serum albumin (g/dl)4.1 (3.8–4.4)4.0 (3.8–4.3)3.9 (3.6–4.2)<0.001
  • Data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges) or numbers (percentages). α1-Microglobulin is standardized to urine creatinine. Category 1 comprises all participants with undetectable urine α1-microglobulin. α1m/cr, α1-Microglobulin–to-creatinine ratio; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor; eGFRCys, eGFR by cystatin C.

  • a Defined as a positive urine dipstick result (≥1+) or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g.