Table 1.

Descriptive characteristics of the dually-eligible cohort, by stroke status

CharacteristicNo StrokeHemorrhagic StrokePaIschemic StrokePb
Patients 66,456 (95.8)534 (0.8)2381 (3.4)
Age (yr)60.6±15.659.2±14.60.03265.9±12.7<0.001
Men29,848 (44.9)239 (44.8)0.94734 (30.8)<0.001
Race/ethnicity<0.001<0.001
 African American27,339 (41.1)240 (44.9)1071 (45.0)
 White23,243 (35.0)125 (23.4)777 (32.6)
 Hispanic12,123 (18.2)127 (23.8)430 (18.1)
 Other3751 (5.6)42 (7.9)103 (4.3)
BMI category<0.0010.75
 <20 kg/m26857 (10.3)86 (16.1)232 (9.7)
 20–24.9 kg/m219,682 (29.6)182 (34.1)697 (29.3)
 25–29.9 kg/m217,719 (26.7)140 (26.2)676 (28.4)
 ≥30 kg/m222,198 (33.4)126 (23.6)776 (32.6)
Smoker4310 (6.5)45 (8.4)0.070125 (5.3)0.016
Substance abuser2025 (3.1)33 (6.2)<0.00140 (1.7)0.001
Unemployed64,654 (97.3)523 (97.9)0.362357 (99.0)<0.001
Unable to ambulate3808 (5.7)14 (2.6)0.002170 (7.1)0.004
Unable to transfer1419 (2.1)3 (0.6)0.01264 (2.7)0.068
In-center HDc63,189 (95.1)516 (96.6)0.102266 (95.2)0.85
Hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dl45,815 (75.1)397 (81.4)0.0011653 (76.6)0.12
Comorbidities
 HTN56,289 (84.7)468 (86.9)0.162083 (87.5)0.002
 DM38,529 (58.0)321 (60.1)0.321686 (70.8)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure21,685 (32.6)171 (32.0)0.77927 (38.9)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease15,956 (24.0)97 (18.2)0.002678 (28.5)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease9611 (14.5)58 (10.9)0.018397 (16.7)0.003
 Prior cerebrovascular accident7173 (10.8)73 (13.7)0.033426 (17.9)<0.001
 Permanent atrial fibrillation6707 (10.1)50 (9.4)0.58401 (16.8)<0.001
Comorbidity scored5.0±2.84.9±2.60.455.7±2.7<0.001
Cause of ESRD0.12<0.001
 DM35,039 (52.7)301 (56.4)1539 (64.7)
 HTN16,880 (25.4)139 (26.0)561 (23.6)
 GN6004 (9.0)38 (7.1)92 (3.9)
 Other8525 (12.8)56 (10.5)188 (7.9)
  • Characteristics are reported as n (%), except for continuous variables, which are shown as mean±1 SD. BMI, body mass index; HD, hemodialysis; HTN, hypertension; DM, diabetes mellitus.

  • a Compares individuals with hemorrhagic stroke to those with no stroke.

  • b Compares individuals with ischemic stroke to those with no stroke.

  • c In-center hemodialysis is contrasted to self-care dialysis, which consists of home hemodialysis plus peritoneal dialysis.

  • d Comorbidity score is derived from an adapted form of the Liu Comorbidity Index.