Table 5.

Associations of urine α1-microglobulin with kidney function decline in HIV-uninfected women

3% Annual eGFRCys Decline5% Annual eGFRCys Decline
C1C2C3C1C2C3
Range of α1m/cr (mg/g)0.1–0.8>0.80.1–0.8>0.8
No. at risk17357571735757
No. events33183013714
Risk Ratio (95% CI)Risk Ratio (95% CI)Risk Ratio (95% CI)Risk Ratio (95% CI)
Demographic adjustedaReference1.65 (1.06 to 2.56)2.23 (1.52 to 3.29)Reference1.46 (0.64 to 3.32)2.30 (1.19 to 4.46)
Multivariate adjustedb1.77 (1.10 to 2.84)2.16 (1.37 to 3.38)1.55 (0.68 to 3.52)2.28 (1.16 to 4.51)
Adjusted+ACRc1.77 (1.10 to 2.83)2.21 (1.41 to 3.45)1.68 (0.73 to 3.89)2.19 (1.12 to 4.29)
Adjusted+ACR, IL-18, KIM-1, NGALd1.61 (1.02 to 2.55)2.13 (1.39 to 3.28)1.72 (0.76 to 3.93)2.28 (1.19 to 4.38)
  • Standardized to urine creatinine and stratified by categories. Category 1 comprises all participants with undetectable urine α1-microglobulin. All analyses use category 1 as the reference category. eGFRCys, cystatin C-based eGFR; C1, category 1; C2, category 2; C3, category 3; α1m/cr, α1–microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1.

  • a Adjusted for age and race.

  • b Adjusted for age, race, baseline eGFRCys, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus infection, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and serum albumin.

  • c Adjusted for all covariates listed above with the addition of ACR.

  • d Adjusted for all covariates listed above with the addition of ACR, IL-18, KIM-1, NGAL, and liver fatty acid binding protein.