Table 1.

Baseline characteristics and parameters

CategoryIntensive Education (n=119)Conventional Education (n=126)Total (n=245)P Value
Characteristics and lifestyle
 Characteristics
  Age (yr)48.2±12.250.7±14.349.5±13.30.14a
  Men57 (47.9)65 (51.6)122 (49.8)0.61b
  Weight (kg)68.1±13.567.5±13.567.8±13.50.74a
  Height (cm)163.8±8.9162.8±8.9163.3±8.90.99a
  Systolic BP (mmHg)131.0±11.0130.8±12.4130.9±11.80.88a
  Diastolic BP (mmHg)79.7±8.279.2±9.979.4±9.10.65a
  Pulse rate (beats/min)77.5±11.577.0±12.577.2±12.00.72a
  Menopause in women34 (44.2)36 (50.7)70 (47.3)0.51b
 Lifestyle
  Smoker: never/ex/current89 (74.8)/20 (16.8)/10 (8.4)83 (65.9)/24 (19.0)/19 (15.1)172 (70.2)/44 (18.0)/29 (11.8)0.21b
  Smoking amount (pack-yr)0.0 (0.0–1.5)0.0 (0.0–6.5)0.0 (0.0–4.0)0.28c
  Drinker: never/ex/current66 (55.5)/9 (7.6)/44 (37.0)61 (48.4)/12 (9.5)/53 (42.1)127 (51.8)/21 (8.6)/97 (39.6)0.53b
  Drinking amount (bottle/wk)0.0 (0.0–0.5)0.0 (0.0–1.0)0.0 (0.0–0.6)0.36c
  Exercise51 (42.9)77 (61.1)128 (52.2)0.005b
  Exercise amount (min/wk)0.0 (0.0–180.0)120.0 (0.0–240.0)60.0 (0.0–210.0)0.001c
Blood and urine measurements
 Blood measurements
  White blood cells (per mm3)6270 (5200–7380)6225 (5118–7038)6250 (5130–7225)0.29c
  Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.2 (12.7–15.4)13.8 (12.7–15.0)14.1 (12.7–15.0)0.27c
  Hematocrit41.3 (38.3–44.2)40.2 (37.7–43.5)41.0 (38.0–43.8)0.26c
  Platelet (×1000/mm3)235 (204–277)225.0 (194.8–277.0)230 (199–277)0.33c
  BUN (mg/dl)15.0 (12.0–20.0)17.0 (14.0–21.0)16.0 (13.0–20.0)0.01c
  Creatinine (mg/dl)1.05 (0.83–1.31)1.08 (0.84–1.48)1.06 (0.84–1.40)0.39c
  eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)d68.4±23.666.2±25.667.3±24.60.47a
  Cholesterol (mg/dl)179 (159–204)179 (156–203)179 (158–203)0.82c
  Uric acid (mg/dl)6.0 (4.9–7.6)6.3 (5.0–7.8)6.2 (5.0–7.6)0.43c
  Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L)21 (18–28)22 (19–26)22 (18–28)0.37c
  Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)20 (15–29)20 (16–27)20 (15–28)0.79c
  Na+ (mEq/L)141 (139–142)141 (139–142)141 (139–142)0.61c
  K+ (mEq/L)4.4 (4.1–4.6)4.4 (4.1–4.6)4.4 (4.1–4.6)0.44c
  Cl (mEq/L)104 (103–106)104 (103–106)104 (103–106)0.79c
  Total carbon dioxide (mEq/L)26.0 (24.3–28.9)26.1 (24.5–28.0)26.0 (24.5–28.1)0.74c
 Urine measurements
  Random urine Na+ (mEq/L)90.3±43.185.9±40.888.0±41.90.41a
  24-h Urine Na+ (mEq/d)154.5±69.6155.8±70.6155.2±70.00.89a
  Random urine K+ (mEq/L)56.0±27.457.4±31.656.7±29.60.71a
  24-h Urine K+ (mEq/d)53.1±21.455.5±22.354.4±21.90.39a
  Random urine creatinine (mg/dl)114.4 (78.5–181.0)118.0 (79.9–163.0)115.9 (79.7–174.6)0.57c
  24-h Urine creatinine (mg/d)1160 (930–1488)1184 (927–1520)1170 (929–1500)0.93c
  Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g creatinine)454.8 (135.7–890.7)394.1 (199.8–919.6)396.2 (166.0–899.0)0.70c
  24-h Urine albumin (mg/d)715.2 (259.4–1348.5)507.9 (230.3–1285.7)566.0 (248.0–1286.9)0.41c
  Creatinine clearance (ml/min)82.0±31.979.7±36.180.8±34.10.61a
Comorbidities and medications
 Comorbidities
  Hypertension119 (100.0)125 (100.0)245 (100.0)>0.99b
  Dyslipidemia66 (56.4)69 (58.5)135 (57.4)0.79b
  Angina0 (0.0)1 (0.8)1 (0.4)0.37b
  Stroke2 (1.7)4 (3.2)6 (2.4)0.68b
 Medications
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor7 (5.9)10 (7.9)17 (6.9)0.62b
  Angiotensin II receptor blocker94 (79.0)91 (72.2)185 (75.5)0.24b
  β-Blocker25 (21.0)23 (18.3)48 (19.6)0.63b
  Calcium channel blocker64 (53.8)67 (53.2)131 (53.5)>0.99b
  Diuretics13 (10.9)15 (11.9)28 (11.4)0.84b
  Other hypertension medications9 (7.6)9 (7.1)18 (7.3)>0.99b
  Statin60 (50.4)60 (47.6)120 (49.0)0.70b
  Fibrates3 (2.5)2 (1.6)5 (2.0)0.68b
  Omega-329 (24.4)33 (26.2)62 (25.3)0.77b
  Other dyslipidemia medications12 (10.1)7 (5.6)19 (7.8)0.23b
  Aspirin37 (31.1)42 (33.3)79 (32.2)0.79b
  Clopidogrel1 (0.8)3 (2.4)4 (1.6)0.62b
  Cilostazol3 (2.5)5 (4.0)8 (3.3)0.72b
  Other antiplatelet agents11 (9.2)15 (11.9)26 (10.6)0.54b
  Steroids3 (2.5)4 (3.2)7 (2.9)>0.99b
  Immunosuppressive agents1 (0.8)3 (2.4)4 (1.6)0.62b
  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs5 (4.2)3 (2.4)8 (3.3)0.49b
  Hormone replacement therapy in women2 (2.7)2 (2.9)4 (2.8)>0.99b
  • Data are presented as means±SDs, medians (interquartile ranges), or number (percentage).

  • a P value estimated by independent t test.

  • b P value estimated by χ2 test.

  • c P value estimated by Mann–Whitney U test.

  • d eGFR was calculated using the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation (milliliters per minute per 1.73 m2).