Table 2.

Sex-stratified multivariable Cox regression analyses of fracture risk associated with urolithiasis

VariableHR (95% CI)P Value
Male participants (n=380,338)
 Urolithiasis1.10 (1.05 to 1.16)<0.001
 Age (yr)1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)<0.001
 Diabetes1.17 (1.11 to 1.25)<0.001
 Gout1.12 (1.04 to 1.20)0.002
 Prematurity/low birth weight1.47 (0.98 to 2.20)0.06
 Primary hyperparathyroidism1.37 (0.88 to 2.12)0.16
 Inflammatory bowel disease1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)0.18
 Immobility/neurogenic bladder1.63 (1.42 to 1.88)<0.001
 Loop diuretic1.67 (1.57 to 1.78)<0.001
 Corticosteroid1.32 (1.26 to 1.37)<0.001
 Topiramate3.50 (2.30 to 5.31)<0.001
Female participants (n=188,714)
 Urolithiasis1.97 (1.57 to 2.47)<0.001
 Age (yr)1.04 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.001
 Urolithiasis × age0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)<0.001
 Diabetes1.18 (1.11 to 1.26)<0.001
 Inflammatory bowel disease1.07 (0.92 to 1.23)0.39
 Immobility/neurogenic bladder1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)0.07
 Loop diuretic1.29 (1.22 to 1.36)<0.001
 Corticosteroid1.25 (1.20 to 1.31)<0.001
 Topiramate2.38 (1.43 to 3.95)0.001
  • HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.