Table 2.

Hospital events and complications

Events and ComplicationsTotal 
(n=188)No Progression (n=95)Progression Alone (n=44)Progression with Death (n=39)Death Alone (n=10)P Value
Reason for admission
 Hepatic encephalopathy50 (27)30 (32)8 (18)10 (26)2 (20)0.33
 Refractory ascites/edema23 (12)11 (12)7 (16)5 (13)0 (0)0.53
 AKI22 (12)12 (13)7 (16)1 (3)2 (20)0.23
 Gastrointestinal bleeding14 (7)8 (8)2 (5)3 (8)1 (10)0.97
 Abdominal pain14 (7)5 (5)5 (11)2 (5)2 (20)0.67
 Jaundice10 (5)5 (5)1 (2)3 (8)1 (10)0.58
 Transplant work-up6 (3)5 (5)0 (0)0 (0)1 (10)0.43
 SBP6 (3)2 (2)1 (2)2 (5)1 (10)0.21
 Other39 (21)17 (18)12 (27)13 (33)0 (0)0.45
Child–Pugh classa<0.001b
 A4 (2)4 (4)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 B60 (32)42 (45)14 (32)4 (10)0 (0)
 C123 (66)48 (51)30 (68)35 (90)10 (100)
Hospital complications
 UTI53 (28)14 (15)18 (41)16 (41)5 (50)<0.001
 SBP37 (20)12 (13)11 (25)12 (31)2 (20)0.002
 Pneumonia35 (19)11 (12)4 (9)15 (38)5 (50)<0.001
 Bacteremia33 (18)11 (12)8 (18)11 (28)3 (30)0.06
 ICU admission90 (48)24 (25)20 (45)38 (97)8 (80)<0.001
 Mechanical ventilation62 (33)9 (9)13 (30)34 (87)6 (60)<0.001
 Vasopressor therapy49 (26)6 (6)8 (18)29 (74)6 (60)<0.001
 Dialysis44 (23)0 (0)16 (36)27 (69)1 (10)<0.001
Child–Pugh score10.5 (9–12)10 (8–11)10 (9–12)12 (11–13)12.5 (11–14)<0.001
MELD scorea26.3±9.522.1±8.426.5±6.934.3±9.334.3±6.1<0.001
Serum sodium at enrollment (mmol/L)133 (130–138)134 (130–137)132 (128–137)133 (130–138)134 (124–143)0.31
Hyponatremia at enrollmentc62 (33)29 (31)17 (39)13 (33)3 (30)0.30
WBC (n=170) (×1000/µl)7.4 (5–10.9)6.1 (4.4–8.5)7.2 (5.2–10.1)12.4 (7.3–10.3)13.9 (10.4–14)<0.001
Hbg (n=170) (g/dl)8.7 (7.9–10.1)8.9 (8.2–10.1)8.8 (7.3–10.3)8.1 (7.5–9.1)8.3 (8–11.1)0.02
AST (n=155) (U/L)64 (39–113)56 (39–89)50 (32–88)118 (49–276)116 (69–272)<0.001
ALT (n=155) (U/L)33 (18–51)29 (20–46)23 (14–47)39 (24–106)44 (30–79)0.001
Midodrine80 (45)32 (34)25 (57)23 (59)6 (60)<0.001
Octreotide81 (46)32 (34)25 (57)24 (62)7 (70)<0.001
Length of stayd12 (6–19)9 (6–14)16 (10–35)15 (8–31)17 (5–26)<0.001
  • Data are presented as the mean±SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%). P values were calculated using the universal F test across four groups. UTI, urinary tract infection; ICU, intensive care unit; MELD, model for end stage liver disease; WBC, white blood cell count; Hgb, hemoglobin; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase.

  • a Child–Pugh class and MELD score are at the time of enrollment.

  • b Jonckheere–Terpstra trend test.

  • c Serum sodium <130 mEq/L.

  • d Days from admission until discharge or death.