Table 1.

Baseline and demographic characteristics

CharacteristicTotal (N=188)No Progression (n=95)Progression Alone (n=44)Progression with Death (n=39)Death Alone (n=10)P Value
Age (yr)55±9.355.7±9.654.7±8.954.7±950.8±70.10
Men133 (71)66 (69)32 (73)29 (74)6 (60)0.83
BMI (kg/m2)30.1 (25.5–35.1)30 (24.5–35.3)29.6 (26–33.9)30.9 (27–34.8)26.7 (25.7–32.7)0.40
Race/ethnicity
 White134 (71)70 (74)37 (84)21 (54)6 (60)0.01
 Black27 (14)14 (15)3 (7)9 (23)1 (10)0.26
 Hispanic23 (12)10 (11)3 (7)8 (21)2 (20)0.06
CKDa65 (35)31 (33)21 (48)12 (31)1 (10)0.48
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)70 (55–98)70 (57–93)64 (43–88)81 (54–100)101 (78–115)0.14
Proteinuriab22 (12)14 (15)3 (7)5 (13)0 (0)0.36
Baseline SCr (mg/dl)1 (0.8–1.3)1 (0.8–1.3)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1 (0.8–1.3)0.7 (0.6–1)0.09
Creatinine at meeting AKIN criteria (mg/dl)2.2 (1.6–2.9)2.1 (1.6–2.7)2.4 (1.6–3.3)2.1 (1.5–2.8)2.3 (1.6–4.1)0.50
Peak creatinine2.7 (1.9–4.2)2.2 (1.7–3.1)3.4 (2.4–4.8)4 (3.1–5.5)2.5 (2.2–5.1)<0.001
Diabetes49 (26)29 (31)10 (23)9 (23)1 (10)0.56
Active cancer21 (11)10 (11)5 (11)4 (10)2 (20)0.98
Cause of cirrhosis
 Alcohol55 (29)27 (28)12 (27)10 (26)6 (60)0.17
 Alcohol and HCV52 (28)26 (27)13 (30)12 (31)1 (10)0.57
 HCV32 (17)14 (15)10 (23)6 (15)2 (20)0.87
 NASH17 (9)10 (11)5 (11)2 (5)0 (0)0.62
 Cryptogenic12 (6)7 (7)3 (7)2 (5)0 (0)0.96
 Autoimmune11 (6)6 (6)0 (0)4 (10)1 (10)0.26
 Other10 (5)5 (5)1 (2)4 (10)0 (0)0.38
Previous complications
 Ascites142 (76)71 (75)35 (81)30 (77)6 (60)0.91
 Hepatic encephalopathy126 (67)61 (64)31 (70)28 (72)6 (60)0.77
 Variceal bleed44 (23)23 (24)12 (27)7 (18)2 (20)0.31
 SBP30 (16)13 (14)7 (16)9 (23)1 (10)0.53
  • Data are presented as the mean±SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%). P values were calculated using the universal F test across four groups. BMI, body mass index; SCr, serum creatinine; AKIN, AKI Network; HCV, hepatitis C virus; NASH, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; SBP, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

  • a CKD is defined as an eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation.

  • b Microalbuminuria is defined as ≥30 mg/dl on dipstick testing or quantitative measurement before admission.