Table 4.

Association of biomarkers with the AKI progression and mortality

Urine Biomarker (Log-Transformed)aNo Progression versus Progression without DeathNo Progression versus Progression with Death
Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)b
Tubular injury marker
 NGAL2.24 (1.25 to 4.00)1.70 (0.82 to 3.54)5.18 (2.55 to 10.52)2.30 (0.94 to 5.60)
 IL-181.33 (0.64 to 2.80)1.31 (0.55 to 3.14)4.92 (2.40 to 10.09)4.09 (1.56 to 10.70)
 KIM-11.10 (0.66 to 1.81)0.95 (0.52 to 1.72)2.98 (1.42 to 6.24)3.13 (1.20 to 8.17)
 L-FABP1.71 (0.96 to 3.06)1.86 (0.94 to 3.67)4.23 (2.20 to 8.15)3.43 (1.54 to 7.64)
Tubular function marker
 FENa0.59 (0.30 to 1.16)0.57 (0.25 to 1.31)1.24 (0.65 to 2.35)1.25 (0.52 to 2.97)
Glomerular injury marker
 Albumin1.26 (0.79 to 1.99)1.14 (0.65 to 1.98)2.48 (1.48 to 4.17)2.07 (1.05 to 4.10)
  • RR, relative risk; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Biomarkers are log10 transformed and RRs are per log-unit change.

  • b Adjusted for CKD stage, demographics (race, age, and sex), MELD score, and serum sodium.