Table 3.

Clinical characteristics of incident dialysis patients according to the crosscombination of muscle mass and muscle strength categories

CharacteristicAppropriate Muscle MassaLow Muscle MassbMultivariate ANOVAcChi-Square Testb
Appropriate Muscle StrengthLow Muscle StrengthAppropriate Muscle StrengthLow Muscle StrengthMuscle EffectStrength EffectInteraction Term
Patients, n (%)134 (41)50 (15)78 (24)68 (20)
Age, yr49 (32–66)60 (44–70)54 (32–68)63 (42–69)0.29<0.0010.51
GFR, ml/min per 1.73 m27 (4–9)7 (3–9)7 (5–10)6 (4–10)0.430.110.75
BMI, kg/m225.2 (21.5–31.4)26.8 (19.2–32.6)22.1 (19.3–27.2)22.5 (18.1–26.4)<0.0010.460.11
DEXA-LBMI, kg/m217.6 (14.7–20.5)17.5 (14.4–21.0)15.9 (13.2–17.4)15.0 (12.6–17.8)<0.0010.130.14
DEXA-FBMI, kg/m27.1 (3.8–11.8)8.2 (3.2–14.2)5.8 (3.0–10.4)6.5 (3.2–9.8)<0.0010.190.20
MAMC, cm16.3 (7.4–31.0)15.2 (6.9–34.5)12.7 (6.1–28.5)14.2 (6.0–22.2)0.020.660.89
CO2, mmol/L23 (19–28)24 (19–32)24 (19–31)25 (20–29)0.440.360.15
Serum albumin, g/dl3.4 (2.7–4.1)3.2 (2.4–3.8)3.5 (2.7–4.2)3.4 (2.6–4.1)0.030.010.76
Serum creatinine, mg/dl8.7 (5.7–13.0)6.4 (4.2–10.6)7.6 (5.1–11.0)6.5 (4.0–9.6)<0.001<0.0010.58
Leptin, ng/ml (n=285)9.9 (2.4–78.0)11.1 (3.6–83.0)8 (2.5–47.5)11.5 (3.8–47.8)0.080.740.97
Cholesterol, mg/dl185 (116–278)201 (116–274)197 (135–282)193 (131–301)0.120.780.47
Hemoglobin, g/L103 (87–121)100 (84–126)111 (91–130)105 (87–126)0.010.160.38
Ferritin, ng/ml (n=323)324 (103–714)294 (51–648)224 (79–746)249 (58–703)0.370.980.67
hsCRP, mg/L3.5 (0.6–23)4.7 (1.2–32)4.5 (0.6–47)8.5 (0.9–38)0.260.040.33
IL-6, pg/ml (n=317)7.2 (2.1–50.6)10.7 (2.5–108)6.3 (2.1–57.2)9.4 (3.0–57.5)0.890.410.18
TNF, pg/ml (n=271)9.6 (6.3–15.8)11 (7.2–26.6)9.8 (5.3–15.6)10.4 (7.2–21)0.130.010.06
Men, %425329330.03
Diabetes mellitus, %25.454.017.935.3<0.001
CVD, %23.153.126.955.9<0.001
PEW, %14.334.719.764.7<0.001
ACEI/ARBs, %752557430.19
PO4− binders, %752554460.12
Ca2+ blockers, %772354460.89
Statins, %722848520.20
  • Categorical data are shown as n (%) or %, whereas continuous data as presented as the median (10th percentile–90th percentile). DEXA-LBMI, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total lean body mass index; DEXA-FBMI, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total fat body mass index; ; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; ACE/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

  • a For appropriate muscle mass, n=184 (56%).

  • b For low muscle mass, n=146 (44%).

  • c Two-factor multivariate ANOVA showing the effect (P value) attributed to the component of muscle strength, muscle mass, or the interaction term strength × mass.

  • d For categorical values of sex through statin use, multivariate ANOVA cannot be applied and differences across the four categories were assessed by the chi-squared test.