Table 4.

HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality in relation to appendicular muscle mass or strength, without taking into consideration both entities together

ExposuresModelHR (95% CI)P Value
As continuous variables in separate models
 Muscle mass, per SD increase (N=330)10.25 (0.08 to 0.78)0.02
20.21 (0.06 to 0.73)0.01
 Muscle strength, per SD increase (N=330)10.25 (0.08 to 0.74)0.01
20.32 (0.18 to 0.57)0.001
As categories, in separate models, according to young reference populations
 Low muscle mass (n=146) versus appropriate (n=184)11.46 (0.99 to 2.15)0.05
21.17 (0.73 to 1.87)0.51
 Low muscle strength (n=118) versus appropriate (n=212)12.54 (1.64 to 3.94)<0.001
21.79 (1.09 to 2.94)0.02
  • Model 1 includes minimal adjustment for age and sex. Model 2 includes adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, CVD, cholesterol, hemoglobin, GFR, and hsCRP. HR, hazard ratio, 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.