Table 2.

Patient characteristics according to the presence of conventional indications (pre-emptive without and classic with) and commencement of RRT in relation to them (classic-urgent versus classic-delayed)

CharacteristicPre-emptive (n=105)Classic (n=134)P ValueClassic-Urgent (n=90)Classic-Delayed (n=44)P Value
Age (yr)64.0 [50.0–75.5]65.5 [56.8–73.0]0.3265.0 [56.8–72.0]69.5 [55.5–77.8]0.29
Men69/105 (65.7)90/134 (67.2)0.8959/90 (65.6)21/44 (47.7)0.70
CKD137104 (12.5)26/132 (19.7)0.1616/88 (18.2)10/44 (22.7)0.64
Number of preexisting chronic illnesses1 [0–2]2 [1–2]0.031 [0–1]2 [1–3]0.21
Operative admission52/105 (49.5)28/134 (20.9)<0.00113/90 (14.4)15/44 (34.1)0.01
Emergency admission90/105 (85.7)131/134 (97.8)0.00189/90 (98.9)42/44 (95.5)0.25
Admitted froma<0.0010.20
 Operating room or recovery room52/105 (49.5)24/134 (17.9)11/90 (12.2)13/44 (29.5)
 Emergency room26/105 (24.8)60/134 (44.8)45/90 (50.0)15/44 (34.1)
 Ward21/107 (20.0)36/134 (26.9)24/90 (26.7)12/44 (27.3)
 Other6/105 (5.7)14/134 (10.4)10/90 (11.1)4/44 (9.1)
SAPS II score47.0 [36.0–60.0]56.0 [47.0–69.5]<0.00156.0 [47.0–68.3]58.5 [46.5–72.0]0.58
SAPS II score without age points38.0 [25.5–46.5]45.0 [35.8–59.3]<0.00144.5 [35.8–59.3]46.0 [35.5–62.8]0.71
SOFA score, first 24 h10.0 [8.0–13.0]11.0 [9.0–14.0]0.2411.0 [8.8–14.0]11.0 [9.0–14.0]0.35
SOFA score, maximum12.0 [10.0–15.0]12.5 [10.0–15.0]0.5812.0 [9.0–15.0]14.0 [11.0–17.0]0.01
Mechanical ventilation (ICU stay)91/105 (86.7)87/134 (64.9)<0.00151/90 (56.7)36/44 (81.8)0.004
Vasoactive drugs (ICU stay)92/105 (87.6)112/134 (83.6)0.4671/90 (78.9)41/44 (93.2)0.05
Severe sepsis until day 548/105 (45.7)72/134 (53.7)0.2444/90 (48.9)28/44 (63.6)0.14
AKI before RRT92/104 (88.5)128/134 (95.5)0.0584/90 (93.3)44/44 (100.0)0.18
Highest AKI stage before RRTa<0.0010.86
 Stage 119/92 (20.7)5/128 (3.9)2/84 (2.4)3/44 (6.8)
 Stage 229/92 (31.5)26/128 (20.3)15/84 (17.9)11/44 (25.0)
 Stage 344/92 (47.8)97/128 (75.8)67/84 (79.8)30/44 (68.2)
Time from hospital admission to RRT (d)2 [1–4]1 [0–3]0.0021 [0–1]3 [1–6]<0.001
Time from ICU admission to RRT (h)22.5 [10.5–44.6]7.3 [2.6–28.7]<0.0013.3 [2.0–7.4]35.5 [22.7–59.8]<0.001
CRRT as initial modality80/105 (76.2)102/134 (76.1)>0.9966/90 (73.3)36/44 (81.8)0.39
At RRT initiation
 K (mEq/L)4.2 [3.9–4.7]4.8 [4.1–5.5]<0.0015.1 [4.3–6.1]4.5 [4.0–5.1]0.004
 pH7.35 [7.27–7.40]7.23 [7.12–7.34]<0.0017.20 [7.10–7.33]7.27 [7.18–7.36]0.02
 BE (mmol/L)−5.5 [−9.5 to −2.6]−11.2 [−16.9 to −7.0]<0.001−13.0 [−19.8 to −4.9]−9.8 [−12.9 to −4.9]0.003
 Lactate (mmol/L)1.8 [1.2–3.9]3.4 [1.5–9.2]<0.0013.4 [1.7–10.3]3.4 [1.4–6.5]0.38
 Creatinine before RRT (mg/dl)2.6 [1.9–3.6]3.7 [2.3–6.3]<0.0014.5 [2.4–7.9]2.9 [1.9–4.4]0.003
 Urea (mmol/L)19.1 [12.1–25.8]23.2 [13.9–33.4]0.0125.9 [17.6–38.9]16.7 [10.6–27.2]0.01
 Urine output (ml/24 h)b380 [110–1075]234 [56–780]0.17315 [105–1190]109 [28–482]0.003
 Fluid accumulation (%)5.1 [1.6–10.8]5.7 [1.7–10.4]0.723.3 [0.5–8.4]9.3 [6.2–14.0]<0.001
 Diuretics before RRT79/105 (75.2)90/134 (67.2)0.2049/90 (54.4)41/44 (93.2)<0.001
Duration of RRT among 90-d survivors (d) at 90 d7.0 [3.0–28.0]4.0 [2.0–23.0]0.134.0 [1.8–21.0]5.0 [3.3–25.0]0.27
  • Data are expressed as median [interquartile range] or number/total number (percentage). SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ICU, intensive care unit; CRRT, continuous RRT; BE, base excess.

  • a Comparison across groups.

  • b On the day of RRT initiation.