Table 1.

Clinical and demographic characteristics of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study population stratified by quartiles of baseline total cholesterol

CharacteristicAll (n=3939)Quartiles of Total Cholesterol at BaselineP Value for Trend
≤152 mg/dl (n=1003)>152 to ≤178 mg/dl (n=972)>178 to ≤209 mg/dl (n=993)>209 mg/dl (n=958)
Age (yr)58.2±11.059.4±10.759.0±10.657.9±11.156.3±11.4<0.001
Women, n (%)1778 (45.1)331 (33.0)424 (43.6)476 (47.9)540 (56.4)<0.001
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic black1650 (41.9)378 (37.7)415 (42.7)423 (42.6)425 (44.4)0.02
 Non-Hispanic white1638 (41.6)453 (45.2)410 (42.2)415 (41.8)358 (37.4)
 Hispanic497 (12.6)125 (12.5)113 (11.6)118 (11.9)139 (14.5)
 Other154 (3.91)47 (4.7)34 (3.5)37 (3.7)36 (3.8)
Hypertension, n (%)3391 (86.1)885 (88.2)855 (88)834 (84)806 (84.1)0.001
Diabetes, n (%)1908 (48.4)601 (59.9)500 (51.4)409 (41.2)394 (41.1)<0.001
History of myocardial infarction/prior revascularization, n (%)862 (21.9)332 (33.1)228 (23.5)162 (16.3)137 (14.3)<0.001
History of congestive heart failure, n (%)382 (9.70)134 (13.4)106 (10.9)70 (7)68 (7.1)<0.001
History of peripheral vascular disease, n (%)262 (6.65)85 (8.5)67 (6.9)61 (6.1)47 (4.9)0.001
Current smoker, n (%)517 (13.1)136 (13.6)114 (11.7)128 (12.9)135 (14.1)0.58
Systolic BP (mmHg)128.5±22.2127.0±21.62127.2±21.03128.5±22.05131.5±23.79<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)71.5±12.869.2±12.5569.5±12.4072.7±12.8374.9±12.62<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)32.1±7.832.2±7.6132.9±8.5231.6±7.4131.7±7.630.02
ACE inhibitor or ARB, n (%)2689 (68.8)736 (73.7)714 (74)640 (64.8)592 (62.6)<0.001
Statins, n (%)2153 (55.0)742 (74.3)612 (63.4)479 (48.5)314 (33.2)<0.001
Lipid-lowering medications other than statins, n (%)527 (13.5)188 (18.8)130 (13.5)98 (9.9)109 (11.5)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)44.9 (16.8)43.4 (16.06)44.3 (17.02)46.8 (17.11)45.2 (17.04)0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.7 (0.6)1.79 (0.54)1.76 (0.61)1.69 (0.57)1.73 (0.59)0.001
24-hr urine protein (g/24 hr) 0.18 (0.07–0.91)0.20 (0.08–0.75)0.17 (0.07–0.82)0.14 (0.07–0.78)0.23 (0.07–1.66)0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.6±1.812.4±1.8412.5±1.7312.8±1.7612.8±1.74<0.001
Hemoglobin A1c (%)6.7±1.66.7±1.466.7±1.516.5±1.536.7±1.740.1
Glucose (mg/dl) 115.4±51.7116.8±53.0114.7±45.2114.7±52.2115.6±55.80.61
C-reactive protein (mg/L)2.57 (1.05–6.51)2.40 (0.96–6.24)2.63 (1.08–6.42)2.53 (1.02–6.47)2.69 (1.16–6.77)0.03
Serum albumin (g/dl) 3.9±0.53.89±0.433.95±0.423.96±0.473.94±0.570.01
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.90 (1.17–3.15)2.19 (1.31–3.82)1.91 (1.19–3.22)1.78 (1.09–2.95)1.80 (1.08–2.83)0.002
Malnutrition/inflammation (%)a1819 (46.6)493 (49.5)427 (44.3)449 (45.5)437 (46.1)0.2
  • Values expressed with a plus/minus sign are the mean±SD. Values with ranges are the median (interquartile range). ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker.

  • a As defined by body mass index<23 kg/m2, C-reactive protein≥10 mg/L, albumin<3.6 g/dl, or IL-6>3.09 pg/ml.