Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study cohort (N=289)

CharacteristiceGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)P Value
≥60 (n=240)<60 (n=49)
Risk factor
 Age (yr)54.5±16.270.8±9.5<0.001
 BSA (m2)1.86±0.221.80±0.270.03
 Men142 (59)26 (53)0.43
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)92.8±22.141.6±15.9<0.001
 Hypertensiona118 (49)38 (78)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus66 (28)16 (33)0.49
 Ischemic heart disease 48 (20)19 (39)0.01
 Prior stroke 39 (16)12 (25)0.22
 Hyperlipidemia 89 (37)20 (41)0.63
 Current smoker 61 (25)10 (20)0.59
 Malignancy 43 (18)3 (6)0.05
Medication at discharge
 Aspirin88 (37)25 (51)0.08
 Clopidogrel31 (13)8 (16)0.50
β-blockers55 (23)19 (39)0.03
 Statins96 (40)21 (43)0.75
 ACEI/ARB110 (46)31 (63)0.03
 Oral hypoglycemic treatment51 (21)11 (22)0.85
LV parameters
 Diastolic function
  Peak E-wave velocity (cm/s)70.0±19.367.3±22.20.33
  Peak A-wave velocity (cm/s)72.1±19.384.0±22.2<0.001
  E/A ratio1.04±0.420.88±0.540.02
  E-deceleration time (s)0.20±0.060.21±0.070.16
  Altered diastolic function (IR, PN, or restrictive)192 (80)48 (98)<0.01
 Systolic function
  LVEF (%)64.4±7.457.7±8.5<0.001
  LVMI (g/m2)114.2±31.4131.6±41.70.001
LA size and function
 LAVI (ml/m2)26.7±9.732.6±12.30.002
 A-wave VTI (cm)7.02±2.538.28±2.590.002
 Atrial fraction (%)37.6±12.544.0±11.30.001
 LA ejection force (%)20.4±13.621.1±13.40.78
  • Data are presented as the mean±SD or n (%). BSA, body surface area; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; LV, left ventricular; E, early; A, late; IR, impaired relaxation; PN, pseudo-normal; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVMI, indexed left ventricular mass; LA, left atrial; LAVI, indexed left atrial volume; VTI, velocity time integral.

  • a Arterial pressure>130/85 mmHg or normotensive patient with a history of hypertension on antihypertensive treatment.