Table 1.

Characteristics of participants by retinopathy status

CharacteristicRetinopathy StatusP Valuea
No NPRMild NPRNPRPRUngradable
Participants1221 (66)133 (7)227 (12)166 (9)105 (6)n/a
Men638 (52)78 (59)133 (59)99 (60)54 (51)0.14
Race
 White697 (57)51 (38)85 (37)70 (42)34 (32)<0.001
 Black464 (38)68 (51)127 (56)86 (52)63 (60)
 Other60 (5)14 (11)15 (7)10 (6)8 (8)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic52 (4)3 (2)14 (6)15 (9)6 (6)0.04
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker586 (48)52 (39)89 (39)79 (48)39 (37)0.06
 Former smoker503 (41)60 (45)103 (45)68 (41)53 (50)
 Current smoker132 (11)21 (16)35 (15)19 (11)13 (12)
Presence of comorbidities
 Any cardiovascular disease335 (27)60 (45)101 (44)86 (52)56 (53)<0.001
 Hypertension1027 (84)127 (95)216 (95)160 (96)100 (95)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus379 (31)64 (48)203 (89)156 (94)73 (70)<0.001
Mean age (yr)59.7 (11.0)59.8 (10.1)59.8 (10.4)58.4 (10.7)63.7 (9.5)0.002
Mean BMI (kg/m2)31.1 (7.4)32.4 (8.2)33.1 (8.0)32.4 (7.1)32.8 (7.7)<0.001
Mean systolic BP (mmHg)123 (20)129 (21)135 (24)132 (24)133 (23)<0.001
Mean diastolic BP (mmHg)70 (12)73 (13)69 (13)67 (13)67 (13)<0.001
Mean eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)47.8 (18.3)42.8 (19.3)38.0 (16.4)33.9 (14.6)38.6 (17.6)<0.001
Median 24-h urine protein (g/24 h)0.11 
(0.06, 0.41)0.18 
(0.07, 0.63)0.48 
(0.10, 1.22)0.76 
(0.19, 2.37)0.21 
(0.08, 1.42)<0.001b
  • Data are presented as n (%), mean (SD), or median (25%, 75%) unless otherwise indicated. NPR, nonproliferative retinopathy; PR, proliferative retinopathy; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Chi-squared test for categorical characteristics, ANOVA for continuous characteristics.

  • b Based on the ANOVA for log-transformed value.