Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of patients with CKD stages 3–5

CharacteristicCKD 3 (n=2292)CKD 4 (n=1287)CKD 5 (n=2784)
Age (yr)71±13a,b73±13a,c68±14b,c
Men, n (%)1585 (69)a,b712 (55)a,c1362 (49)b,c
BMI (kg/m2)23.9±4.124.1±4.023.9±4.0
Mortality (per 100 person-yr)2.56.85.4
RRT (per 100 person-yr)24.420.340.8
Duration of follow-up (yr)1.6 (0.9–2.1)b1.5 (0.8–2.7)c1.4 (0.4–2.3)b,c
Comorbidity, n (%)
 CAD213 (9.3)b95 (7.4)162 (5.8)b
 DM799 (34.9)a,b591 (45.9)a1252 (45.0)b
 CVA115 (5.0)b85 (6.6)c106 (3.8)b,c
 Cancer127 (5.5)99 (7.7)c108 (3.9)c
Underlying diseases, n (%)
 Chronic GN788 (34.4)a370 (42.2)a,c891 (32.1)a
 DM715 (31.2)a,b543 (39.9)a1167 (42.1)b
 Hypertension478 (20.9)b176 (13.7)314 (11.3)b
Forms of exercise, n (%)
 Walking576 (25.1)a,b 267 (20.8)a,c 498 (17.9)b,c
 Hiking147 (6.4)172 (13.4)194 (7.0)
 Jogging96 (4.2)81 (6.3)59 (2.1)
 Dancing84 (3.7)48 (3.7)96 (3.4)
 Cycling94 (4.1)93 (7.2)64 (2.3)
Frequency of exercise, n (%)
 0 times/wk1506 (65.7)a,b 941 (73.1)a,c 2157 (77.5)b,c
 1–2 times/wk81 (3.5)45 (3.5)79 (2.8)
 3–4 times/wk157 (6.9)77 (6.0)152 (5.5)
 5–6 times/wk274 (12)138 (10.7)257 (9.2)
 ≥7 times/wk 274 (12)86 (6.7)138 (5.0)
Duration of exercise, n (%)
 0 min/session1502 (65.5)a,b 931 (72.3)a,c 2157 (77.5)b,c
 <30 min/session230 (10)133 (10.3)213 (7.7)
 30–60 min/session267 (11.7)128 (10)232 (8.3)
 61–90 min/session227 (9.9)81 (6.3)152 (5.5)
 >90 min/session66 (2.9)14 (1.1)29 (1.0)
Smoking, n (%)
 Current256 (11.2)124 (9.6)228 (8.2)
  Quit209 (9.1)81 (6.3)124 (4.5)
Alcohol use, n (%)
 Current 113 (4.9)41 (3.2)70 (2.5)
 Quit146 (6.4)56 (4.4)112 (4.0)
Hemoglobin (g/dl)9.2±2.3a,b 9.9±2.4a10.1±2.3b
ESA therapy, n (%)801 (35)449 (34.9)922 (33.1)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)44.8±8.6a,b 22.1±4.3a,c 7.1±3.3b,c
  • BMI, body mass index, CAD, coronary artery disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.

  • a P<0.05 for CKD 4 versus CKD 3.

  • b P<0.05 for CKD 5 versus CKD 3.

  • c P<0.05 for CKD 5 versus CKD 4.