Table 2.

Characteristics of study participants stratified by event status

CharacteristicAtherosclerotic EventsDecompensated Heart FailureDeath
Yes (n=70)No (n=374)P ValueYes (n=23)No (n=421)P ValueYes (n=30)No (n=414)P Value
Age (yr)71±864±13<0.00173±765±130.00273±865±13
Women, n (%)21 (30)158 (42)0.067 (30)172 (41)0.398 (27)171 (41)0.13
Smokers, n (%)8 (11)36 (10)0.661 (4)43 (10)0.723 (10)41 (10)>0.99
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)39 (56)129 (34)0.00111 (48)157 (37)0.3914 (47)154 (37)0.33
Prevalent CVD, n (%)49 (70)86 (23)<0.00114 (61)121 (29)0.00218 (60)117 (28)0.001
Impaired systolic LV function, n (%)16 (23)46 (12)0.0316 (70)46 (11)<0.00112 (40)50 (12)0.001
CRP (mg/L)4.0 (1.7–8.6)2.6 (1.1–5.1)0.013.9 (2.4–9.8)2.7 (1.1–5.1)0.054.2 (2.4–9.6)2.6 (1.1–4.9)0.01
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)177±44196±41<0.001177±36194±420.05180±40194±420.12
HDL-C (mg/dl)46±1852±170.00250±1452±170.7150±2152±170.35
LDL-C (mg/dl)104±33118±350.001105±30117±360.12110±33116±360.41
BMI (kg/m2)30±530±60.5732±530±50.0929±530±50.29
Calcium (mmol/L)2.3±0.12.4±0.10.352.4±0.22.4±0.10.912.4±0.12.4±0.10.54
Phosphate (mg/dl)3.6±0.93.3±0.70.013.9±0.53.4±0.7<0.0013.6±0.63.4±0.70.12
PTH (pg/ml)63 (41–110)52 (37–77)0.01101 (62–126)52 (37–78)<0.00191 (62–117)51 (36–74)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)36±1347±16<0.00133±1046±16<0.00136±1546±160.001
UAE (mg/g creatinine)85 (24–399)30 (7–155)0.00187 (24–179)32 (7–195)0.0788 (26–31)31 (7–185)0.01
FePi (%)33±1324±13<0.00135±1025±13<0.00134±1225±13<0.001
β-blocker use, n (%)56 (89)245 (66)0.0221 (91)280 (67)0.0125 (83)276 (67)0.07
ACE-I use, n (%)31 (44)134 (36)0.183 (13)162 (38)0.0111 (37)154 (37)>0.99
Statin intake, n (%)45 (64)171 (46)0.0115 (65)201 (48)0.1317 (57)199 (48)0.45
Unhydroxylated vitamin D3 intake, n (%)36 (51)153 (41)0.1211 (48)178 (42)0.6715 (50)174 (42)0.45
Active vitamin D3 intake, n (%)9 (13)24 (6)0.084 (17)29 (7)0.084 (13)29 (7)0.27
  • Echocardiographic data were available in 425 patients. Variables are presented as numbers of patients (percentage), as mean±SD, or as median (interquartile range), as appropriate. CVD, cardiovascular disease; LV, left ventricular; CRP, C-reactive protein; HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; BMI, body mass index; PTH, parathyroid hormone; UAE, urinary albumin excretion; FePi, urinary fractional phosphate excretion; ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.