Table 4.

Competing risks regression for time to ESRD in the Pathways Study

VariableUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Model 1 Adjusted HR (95% CI)Model 2 Adjusted HR (95% CI)b
Major depressive symptomsa2.31 (1.37 to 3.92)1.90 (1.09 to 3.32)1.85 (1.02 to 3.33)
Minor depressive symptomsa1.43 (0.71 to 2.89)1.08 (0.52 to 2.24)1.08 (0.52 to 2.25)
Age (yr)0.99 (0.98 to 1.01)0.94 (0.92 to 0.96)0.94 (0.92 to 0.96)
Men0.95 (0.63 to 1.45)1.02 (0.65 to 1.61)1.01 (0.63 to 1.64)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic whiteReferenceReferenceReference
 Non-Hispanic black2.04 (1.10 to 3.78)1.71 (0.88 to 3.34)1.74 (0.90 to 3.37)
 Asian1.66 (0.85 to 3.24)1.73 (0.90 to 3.33)1.64 (0.85 to 3.18)
 Other0.67 (0.16 to 2.72)0.67 (0.15 to 2.97)0.66 (0.15 to 2.98)
Married1.04 (0.67 to 1.62)1.20 (0.73 to 1.97)1.22 (0.74 to 2.01)
Education beyond high school0.69 (0.44 to 1.09)0.62 (0.38 to 1.04)0.61 (0.37 to 1.02)
Smoker0.58 (0.21 to 1.58)0.57 (0.20 to 1.62)0.56 (0.20 to 1.62)
Body mass index (kg/m2)1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)1.01 (0.97 to 1.05)1.01 (0.97 to 1.05)
Duration of diabetes (yr)1.04 (1.02 to 1.05)1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)
Hemoglobin A1c (%)1.21 (1.07 to 1.36)1.17 (1.03 to 1.33)1.18 (1.04 to 1.35)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)0.96 (0.95 to 0.97)0.95 (0.94 to 0.96)0.95 (0.94 to 0.96)
Microalbuminuria4.10 (2.23 to 7.53)2.36 (1.25 to 4.46)2.36 (1.24 to 4.49)
Hypertension1.52 (1.00 to 2.33)0.91 (0.58 to 1.42)0.91 (0.58 to 1.43)
ACEI/ARB use1.75 (1.07 to 2.87)1.52 (0.90 to 2.58)1.54 (0.92 to 2.60)
General diet (d/wk)0.93 (0.85 to 1.02)0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)
Special diet (d/wk)0.96 (0.84 to 1.09)1.01 (0.88 to 1.16)
Exercise (d/wk)0.92 (0.85 to 1.01)1.00 (0.90 to 1.10)
Blood glucose testing (d/wk)1.01 (0.93 to 1.10)0.93 (0.85 to 1.02)
Foot care (d/wk)1.00 (0.91 to 1.10)0.97 (0.88 to 1.08)
  • Survival models for continuous variables are hazard ratios for an increase by one unit. Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education level, smoking status, body mass index, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, eGFR, presence of baseline microalbuminuria, hypertension, and ACEI/ARB use. HR, hazard ratio.

  • a Participants with major depressive symptoms had Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores≥10 and at least five depressive symptoms (including depressed mood or anhedonia) >50% of the time for at least 2 weeks. Participants with minor depressive symptoms had Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores≥5 and two to four depressive symptoms (including depressed mood or anhedonia) >50% of the time for at least 2 weeks.

  • b Additionally adjusted for Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scores for general diet, special diet, exercise, blood glucose testing, and foot care.