Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of Pathways Study cohort by depression status (n=3886)

VariableMajor Depressive Symptomsa (n=448)Minor Depressive Symptomsa (n=327)No Depressive Symptoms (N=3111)
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score17.2 (3.8)9.6 (2.2)3.7 (3.4)
Age (yr)59.3 (13.4)64.4 (13.6)64.1 (13.1)
Men (%)185 (41.2)169 (51.7)1663 (53.5)
Race/ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic white347 (77.6)243 (74.5)2483 (80.2)
 Non-Hispanic black49 (11.0)27 (8.3)249 (8.0)
 Asian28 (6.3)34 (10.5)248 (8.0)
 Other23 (5.2)22 (6.8)118 (3.8)
Married (%)243 (54.9)199 (61.8)2015 (65.4)
Education beyond high school (%)323 (72.9)219 (68.0)2379 (77.3)
Salary≥$20,000/yr (%)201 (53.2)129 (50.4)1468 (59.0)
Smoker (%)65 (14.5)33 (10.1)227 (7.3)
Body mass index (kg/m2)35.1 (9.2)32.1 (7.1)31.0 (6.8)
Hypertension (%)203 (45.3)158 (48.3)1334 (42.9)
LDL (mg/dl)114.3 (36.5)108.0 (32.1)111.8 (34.7)
Type 1 diabetes (%)13 (2.9)8 (2.5)132 (4.3)
Duration of diabetes (yr)7 (3–13)8 (4–15)6 (3–12)
Hemoglobin A1c (%)8.1 (1.6)7.9 (1.6)7.7 (1.5)
Creatinine (mg/dl)1.0 (0.4)1.1 (0.4)1.0 (0.4)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)77.3 (23.5)71.6 (24.8)73.6 (21.7)
Microalbuminuria (UACR≥30 mg/g)134 (39.6)83 (36.2)687 (30.5)
Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities scoreb
 General diet3.7 (2.2)4.3 (2.2)4.9 (2.0)
 Special diet3.4 (1.6)3.6 (1.7)4.0 (1.6)
 Exercise2.0 (1.9)2.1 (2.0)2.9 (2.2)
 Blood glucose testing4.3 (2.7)4.1 (2.8)4.2 (2.8)
 Foot care3.2 (2.3)3.4 (2.2)3.3 (2.4)
Antidepressant use (%)234 (52.2)90 (27.5)479 (15.4)
ACEI/ARB use (%)263 (61.6)186 (59.6)1735 (59.1)
  • Data are mean (SD), N (%), or median (interquartile range). Data are missing in less than 1% for race/ethnicity, marital status, body mass index, type 1 diabetes, duration of diabetes, exercise, and blood glucose testing; 1%–2% for education, hemoglobin A1c, general diet, special diet, and foot care; 3%–10% for creatinine and eGFR; and >10% for salary (20%), LDL (28%), and microalbuminuria (27%). UACR, urine albumin to creatinine ratio; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a Participants with major depressive symptoms had Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores≥10 and at least five depressive symptoms (including depressed mood or anhedonia) >50% of the time for at least 2 weeks. Participants with minor depressive symptoms had Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores≥5 and two to four depressive symptoms (including depressed mood or anhedonia) >50% of the time for at least 2 weeks.

  • b Self-care scores correspond with how many days per week that the self-care activity was performed.