Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of individuals stratified by quartiles of baseline serum ALP level

VariableSerum ALP (U/L)P Value
≤52 (n=271)53–64 (n=243)65–81 (n=253)≥82 (n=254)
Age (yr)44.7±14.945.1±15.848.3±14.952.0±15.3<0.001a
Men (%)158 (58.3)134 (55.1)169 (66.8)142 (55.9)0.03a
Body mass index (kg/m2)21.1±2.921.4±3.221.5±3.021.4±3.00.44
Diabetes (%)46 (17.0)44 (18.1)71 (28.1)72 (28.3)0.001a
CVD (%)97 (35.8)76 (31.3)89 (35.2)105 (41.3)0.13
Comorbidity score3.33±1.853.49±1.883.77±1.874.24±2.00<0.001a
24-hr urine output (ml)1000 (500–1475)900 (540–1200)1000 (500–1500)925 (500–1400)0.47
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)5.63 (4.23–7.44)5.65 (4.39–7.54)6.05 (4.62–8.08)5.99 (4.57–7.93)0.11
Systolic pressure (mmHg)140±18138±19139±20135±230.03a
Diastolic pressure (mmHg)86±1486±1484±1482±160.02a
Hemoglobin (g/dl)8.96±2.389.27±2.299.04±2.139.26±2.350.32
N/L2.69 (1.85–3.72)2.86 (2.03–4.07)2.97 (2.13–4.07)2.92 (2.23–4.32)0.03a
Albumin (g/dl)3.63±0.543.67±0.523.66±0.533.65±0.560.84
Calcium (mg/dl)8.84±0.998.85±1.028.71±0.948.53±1.060.001a
Phosphorus (mg/dl)5.41±1.895.18±1.655.07±1.625.14±1.780.08
iPTH (pg/ml)238 (123–442)238 (120–444)286 (146–442)342 (178–562)<0.001a
Urea nitrogen (mg/dl)110 (85–155)113 (85–154)115 (86–155)115 (85–155)0.98
Creatinine (mg/dl)8.9 (7.0–11.6)8.7 (6.8–11.2)8.4 (6.7–10.5)8.1 (6.4–10.4)0.01a
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)193±54192±53191±52190±530.96
Triglyceride (mg/dl)114 (82–166)124 (90–187)121 (86–165)117 (84–166)0.17
ALT (U/L)14 (9–19)14 (10–22)15 (10–23)16 (11–25)0.003a
AST (U/L)17 (14–23)18 (14–23)18 (14–23)22 (15–30)<0.001a
Total bilirubin (mg/dl)0.26 (0.20–0.32)0.26 (0.19–0.34)0.26 (0.20–0.35)0.26 (0.20–0.34)0.93
Uric acid (mg/dl)7.53±1.817.69±1.847.54±1.767.54±1.990.74
Vitamin D analog use (%)62 (22.9)55 (22.6)66 (26.1)63 (24.8)0.77
Phosphate binder use (%)92 (33.9)88 (36.2)97 (38.3)100 (39.4)0.58
ACEI/ARB use (%)123 (45.4)110 (45.3)122 (48.2)115 (45.3)0.89
β-Blocker use (%)73 (26.9)67 (27.6)75 (29.6)66 (26.0)0.82
  • ALP, alkaline phosphatase; CVD, cardiovascular disease; N/L, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; iPTH, parathyroid hormone; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a P<0.05 is considered statistically significant.