Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with Medicare initiating dialysis according to dialysis modality and facility profit status

CharacteristicHemodialysis (n=140,665)Peritoneal Dialysis (n=9977)
For-Profit (n=128,576)Nonprofit (n=12,089)P ValueFor-Profit (n=9081)Nonprofit (n=896)P Value
Region<0.001<0.001
 Midwest28,925 (22)3270 (27)2286 (25)190 (21)
 Northeast19,766 (15)1958 (16)1098 (12)101 (11)
 South59,468 (46)3981 (33)4264 (47)298 (33)
 West20,417 (16)2880 (24)1433 (16)307 (34)
Age (yr)65.5±14.865.4±14.90.7761.2±15.860.9±15.70.56
Male69,685 (54)6688 (55)0.025029 (55)511 (57)0.34
Race<0.001<0.001
 White83,833 (65)7883 (65)6908 (76)647 (72)
 Black38,959 (30)3514 (29)1745 (19)176 (20)
 Asian3140 (2)383 (3)220 (2)49 (5)
 Native American1366 (1)200 (2)103 (1)13 (1)
 Pacific Islander849 (1)68 (1)68 (1)8 (1)
 Multiracial, other, unknown429 (0.3)41 (0.3)37 (0.4)3 (0.3)
Hispanic16,888 (13)830 (7)<0.0011073 (12)53 (6)<0.001
Medicare and Medicaid dual eligibility50,653 (39)4786 (40)0.682606 (29)243 (27)0.32
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.7±8.028.4±7.8<0.00128.4±6.928.1±6.90.18
Tobacco use, current smoker8083 (6)1032 (9)<0.001650 (7)75 (8)0.18
Diabetes76,999 (60)7077 (59)<0.014812 (53)469 (52)0.71
Atherosclerotic heart disease30,095(23)3276 (27)<0.0011752 (19)197 (22)0.05
Cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack13,795 (11)1572 (13)<0.001658 (7)67 (7)0.80
Peripheral vascular disease20,354 (16)2096 (17)<0.0011088 (12)115 (13)0.45
Congestive heart failure47,249 (37)4523 (37)0.152169 (24)207 (23)0.60
Amputation4319 (3)480 (4)<0.001177 (2)16 (2)0.73
Hypertension113,546 (88)10,740 (89)0.088015 (88)784 (88)0.50
Cancer9284 (7)1108 (9)<0.001496 (5)58 (6)0.21
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease12,554 (10)1455 (12)<0.001556 (6)52 (6)0.70
Etiology of renal disease<0.0010.20
 Diabetes61,276 (48)5544 (46)3993 (44)398 (44)
 Hypertension39,850 (31)3566 (29)2624 (29)239 (27)
 GN6853 (5)766 (6)961 (11)86 (10)
 Cystic kidney1803 (1)209 (2)341 (4)41 (5)
 Other or unknown18,794 (15)2004 (17)1162 (13)132 (15)
Inability to ambulate or transfer9179 (7)1074 (9)<0.001172 (2)14 (2)0.48
Institutionalization<0.0010.86
 Assisted living892 (1)142 (1)18 (0.2)2 (0.2)
 Nursing home8655 (7)948 (8)75 (1)5 (1)
 Other530 (0.4)73 (0.6)11 (0.1)1 (0.1)
Prior nephrology care (mo)<0.001<0.01
 <613,147 (10)1443 (12)1245 (14)129 (14)
 6–12 30,795 (24)2987 (25)2708 (30)247 (28)
 >12 29,171 (23)3386 (28)3210 (35)367 (41)
 Unknown15,894 (12)909 (8)544 (6)34 (4)
Hemoglobin (g/dl)10.0±1.710.1±1.70.5210.7±1.710.6±1.80.84
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)11.1±5.710.9±5.5<0.00110.9±5.111.0±5.50.66
Albumin (g/dl)0.280.86
 <2.517,639 (14)1613 (13)522 (6)45 (5)
 2.5–2.921,364 (17)2048 (17)906 (10)93 (10)
 3.0–3.427,208 (21)2563 (21)1622 (18)148 (17)
 3.5–3.921,882 (17)2149 (18)2247 (25)212 (24)
 ≥4.010,340 (8)1006 (8)1841 (20)181 (20)
 Missing30,143 (23)2710 (22)1943 (21)217 (24)
Access typea<0.001
 Arteriovenous fistula17,330 (13)2052 (17)
 Arteriovenous graft5993 (5)549 (5)
 Catheter103,094 (80)9321 (77)
 Other1627 (1)104 (1)
 Missing532 (0.4)63 (0.5)
  • Data are presented as the mean ± SD or n (%).