Table 3.

Odds ratio of acidosis by net endogenous acid production in 9781 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

Net Endogenous Acid ProductionOdds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Model 1Model 2Model 3
Continuousa1.17 (1.08 to 1.28)b1.15 (1.05 to 1.26)b1.09 (1.00 to 1.21)
<39.3 mEq/dReferenceReferenceReference
39.3–52.9 mEq/d1.11 (0.90 to 1.37)1.12 (0.92 to 1.38)1.11 (0.90 to 1.38)
53.0–69.9 mEq/d1.38 (1.08 to 1.78)b1.34 (1.05 to 1.73)b1.25 (0.97 to 1.60)
≥70.0 mEq/d1.61 (1.26 to 2.05)b1.51 (1.16 to 1.95)b1.33 (1.03 to 1.72)b
P for trend<0.0010.0020.03
  • Acidosis defined as serum bicarbonate<23 mEq/L. Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Model 3: model 2 adjusted for body mass index, poverty, education, smoking status, diuretic use, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, estimated GFR, log-transformed urine albumin–creatinine ratio, serum albumin, and log-transformed C-reactive protein.

  • a Per SD higher net endogenous acid production (SD=26.4 mEq/d).

  • b P<0.05.