Table 3.

Reported indications and notable laboratory values in patients with diabetes who underwent kidney biopsy

VariablesDN AloneDN plus NDRDNDRD Alone
Patients (n)227164220
Proteinuria (mg/d)
 Data unavailable42 (18.5)39 (23.8)54 (24.6)
 <50013 (5.7)9 (5.5)21 (9.6)
 500–350049 (21.6)39 (23.8)76 (34.6)a,b
 >3500123 (54.2)77 (47.0)69 (31.4)a,b
Active urine sediment63 (27.8)62 (37.8)c74 (33.6)
AKI (baseline no CKD)101 (44.5)85 (51.8)110 (50.0)
AKI (baseline CKD)37 (16.3)43 (26.2)c37 (16.8)b
All AKI138 (60.8)128 (78.1)c147 (66.8)b
Any positive serologic test69 (30.4)60 (36.6)77 (35.0)
(+) ANA, dsDNA, or cardiolipin antibody28 (12.3)26 (15.9)20 (9.1)b
(+) ANCA7 (3.1)10 (6.1)15 (6.8)
Low C3 and/or C42 (0.9)16 (9.8)c12 (5.5)a
(+) HBsAg or HCV antibody22 (9.7)16 (9.8)13 (5.9)
M-spike (serum or urine)16 (7.1)13 (7.9)30 (13.6)a
(+) ASLO2 (0.9)3 (1.8)3 (1.4)
(+) HIV1 (0.4)5 (3.1)c4 (1.8)
  • Variables are expressed as n (%). DN, diabetic nephropathy; NDRD, nondiabetic renal disease; ANA, antinuclear antibody; dsDNA, double-strand DNA; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCV, hepatitis C virus; ASLO, anti-streptolysin O.

  • a P<0.05 for comparison of NDRD alone versus DN alone subgroups.

  • b P<0.05 for comparison of NDRD alone versus DN plus NDRD subgroups.

  • c P<0.05 for comparison of DN plus NDRD versus DN alone subgroups.