Table 3.

Pooled AKI-associated mortality rate in studies that adopted a KDIGO-equivalent AKI definition

Subgroup Studies (n)Patients with AKI (n)Deaths (n)Pooled Mortality Rate95% Confidence IntervalTest for Heterogeneity
I2 IndexQ Test P Value
All110429,535107,43323.021.3 to 24.899.3<0.001
Age category
 Adults99427,804107,16723.922.1 to 25.799.4<0.001
 Children11173126613.88.8 to 21.091.3<0.001
Clinical setting
 Community acquired54349201532.820.8 to 47.598.1<0.001
 Critical care31198,64553,78333.129.8 to 36.699.5<0.001
 Cardiac surgery2321,81118718.36.6 to 10.495.3<0.001
 Trauma3238759332.213.0 to 60.199.1<0.001
 Heart failure12214721.316.4 to 27.2
 Hematology/oncology22787625.716.1 to 38.373.9<0.001
 Nephrotoxins1811214.88.6 to 24.3
 Hospital acquired, unspecified44201,76349,03625.722.5 to 29.199.2<0.001
Continent
 Australia and New Zealand7137,11633,28124.423.2 to 25.693.9<0.001
 Asia1314,718408930.221.9 to 40.198.9<0.001
 Europe4065,20021,15723.520.6 to 26.798.8<0.001
 America48209,12046,99218.816.1 to 21.899.3<0.001
 Multiple continents23381191449.029.3 to 69.098.6<0.001
World zonea
 Australia and New Zealand7137,11633,28124.423.2 to 25.693.9<0.001
 Eastern Asia912,154368836.925.7 to 49.799.2<0.001
 Western Asia2200633323.610.1 to 46.093.1<0.001
 South Asia25586813.84.6 to 34.395.2<0.001
 Eastern Europe263911121.43.6 to 66.898.8<0.001
 Western Europe108769195121.317.4 to 25.893.3<0.001
 Northern Europe108712145117.29.9 to 28.298.9<0.001
 Southern Europe145494165026.319.2 to 34.997.6<0.001
 Multi-zone Europe441,58615,99438.335.9 to 40.896.2<0.001
 North America42208,01946,56516.614.0 to 19.599.3<0.001
 South America6110142738.919.0 to 63.397.9<0.001
 Multiple zones23381191449.029.3 to 69.098.6<0.001
Latitude
 North96290,85473,54721.419.3 to 23.699.4<0.001
 South13138,21733,70830.728.4 to 33.197.5<0.001
 North and South146417838.434.0 to 42.9
Country income classificationb
 Low income1399328.05.7 to 11.1
 Lower middle income11593622.616.8 to 29.8
 Upper middle income1412,697399241.430.8 to 52.998.9<0.001
 High income93412,187101,88420.919.2 to 22.699.3<0.001
 Not available14093148936.434.9 to 37.9
Country total health expenditure (% of GDP)c
 <546554157136.117.3 to 60.299.2<0.001
 5–1053208,68957,06426.624.1 to 29.399.3<0.001
 >1052210,19947,30918.415.9 to 21.299.2<0.001
 Not available14093148936.434.9 to 37.9
Duration of follow-up (mo)
 <395413,487102,16922.120.4 to 23.999.3<0.001
 3–664831210131.518.6 to 48.098.6<0.001
 >6911,217316327.722.2 to 33.997.3<0.001
  • KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; GDP, gross domestic product.

  • a According to the United Nations geo-scheme classification (11).

  • b According to the World Bank's classification of income of countries (12).

  • c According to the World Health Organization (14).