Table 2.

Percentage of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and progressive lupus nephritis versus percentage of matched controls without lupus nephritis with anti–double-stranded DNA antibody levels above specific thresholds (all time periods, <1 year, 1–4 years, and >4 years)

DsDNAPatients (%)Controls (%)Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) P Value (Fisher Exact Test)
(>2 IU/ml): All83 (19/23)24 (5/21)15 (3.5 to 66)<0.001
 <1 yr82 (14/17)15 (2/13)26 (4 to 181)<0.001
 1–4 yr73 (11/15)25 (4/16)8.3 (1.7 to 41)0.01
 >4 yr50 (7/14)7 (1/14)13 (1.3 to 128)0.03
(>4 IU/ml): All78 (18/23)14 (3/21)22 (4.5 to 104)<0.001
 <1 yr82 (14/17)15 (2/13)26 (4 to 181)<0.001
 1–4 yr60 (9/15)13 (2/16)11 (2 to 64)0.009
 >4 yr36 (5/14)7 (1/14)7.2 (0.7 to 73)0.17
(>10 IU/ml): All78 (18/23)5 (1/21)72 (7.7 to 676)<0.001
 <1 yr82 (14/17)8 (1/13)56 (5 to 612)<0.001
 1–4 yr53 (8/15)0 (0/16)23 (2 to 218)a<0.001
 >4 yr36 (5/14)0 (0/14)13 (1.3 to 128)a0.04
(>40 IU/ml) All70 (16/23)0 (0/21)65 (7.1 to 593)a<0.001
 <1 yr82 (14/17)0 (0/13)90 (7 to 1116)a<0.001
 1–4 yr27 (4/15)0 (0/16)10 (1.03 to 97)a0.04
 >4 yr7 (1/14)0 (0/14)2.2 (0.2 to 27)a1.0
  • The Department of Defense Serum Repository could not assign a matching control for one patient. The samples for a second control were lost in processing, leaving 21. Not all patients had samples available for each subgroup time period. If multiple serum samples were present for a patient in a specific subgroup analysis time period, the highest antibody level dictated group assignment. All serum samples available for the one control with an anti–double-stranded DNA antibody level >/10 IU/ml were obtained <1 year before diagnosis. Percentages are accompanied by n/n in parentheses. dsDNA, double-stranded DNA.

  • a Estimated because of actual infinite value.