Table 4.

Prevalence ratios for aTRH associated with study covariates among REGARDS study participants with CKD

CharacteristicAge, Race, and Sex AdjustedMultivariable Adjusteda
Age, per 10 yr0.99 (0.93 to 1.05)1.05 (0.98 to 1.13)
Women0.75 (0.67 to 0.84)0.87 (0.76 to 0.99)
Black race1.56 (1.38 to 1.75)1.49 (1.31 to 1.68)
Region
 Nonbelt1 (ref)1 (ref)
 Belt1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)
 Buckle1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)1.05 (0.91 to 1.22)
Income<$20,0001.18 (1.04 to 1.33)1.08 (0.94 to 1.23)
Less than high school education1.07 (0.93 to 1.23)0.99 (0.85 to 1.15)
Waist circumference, per 15 cm1.19 (1.13 to 1.25)1.13 (1.07 to 1.20)
Diabetes1.44 (1.29 to 1.62)1.13 (1.00 to 1.28)
Current smoking0.98 (0.83 to 1.16)1.01 (0.85 to 1.20)
Alcohol use0.95 (0.83 to 1.07)1.02 (0.90 to 1.17)
Physical activity
 None1 (ref)1 (ref)
 1–3 times/wk0.91 (0.80 to 1.04)1.00 (0.88 to 1.14)
 4+ times/wk0.79 (0.68 to 0.92)0.90 (0.77 to 1.05)
History of myocardial infarction1.34 (1.19 to 1.51)1.20 (1.06 to 1.36)
History of stroke1.23 (1.07 to 1.42)1.15 (1.00 to 1.33)
Statin use1.44 (1.29 to 1.62)1.29 (1.14 to 1.46)
Total cholesterol, per 40 mg/dl0.90 (0.84 to 0.95)0.97 (0.91 to 1.04)
HDL cholesterol, per 15 mg/dl0.86 (0.81 to 0.92)0.95 (0.88 to 1.02)
C-reactive protein>3 mg/L1.07 (0.96 to 1.20)0.96 (0.86 to 1.08)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2
 ≥601 (ref)1 (ref)
 45–590.95 (0.83 to 1.09)1.18 (1.00 to 1.40)
 <451.25 (1.08 to 1.44)1.22 (1.05 to 1.43)
ACR, mg/g
 <101 (ref)1 (ref)
 10–291.44 (1.16 to 1.79)1.32 (1.06 to 1.65)
 30–2991.43 (1.20 to 1.70)1.50 (1.22 to 1.83)
 ≥3002.37 (1.97 to 2.85)2.24 (1.83 to 2.76)
  • CKD was defined as an ACR≥30 mg/g or an eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Numbers are prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals).

  • a Adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, income, education, physical activity, current smoking, alcohol use, waist circumference, diabetes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, statin use, C-reactive protein, history of myocardial infarction, history of stroke, ACR, and eGFR.