Table 1.

Patient demographics

VariableCurrent StudyLeuven Mild-to-Moderate CKD StudyP Value
Patients, n203499
Age, yr60 (48–72)64 (50–75)0.01
Sex, men/women (%)120/83 (59/41)274/225 (55/45)0.32
Weight, kg75.5 (15.5)74.9 (16.0)0.62
Body mass index, kg/m226.1 (5.4)26.5 (5.2)0.40
Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.81 (1.30–2.49)1.79 (1.28–2.47)0.57
Estimated GFR (MDRD), ml/min per 1.73 m233.8 (23.0–54.0)35.7 (24.6–55.3)0.23
Estimated GFR (CKD-EPI), ml/min per 1.73 m234.3 (23.1–55.9)33.9 (23.0–55.1)0.95
Serum p-cresol, µM43.6 (17.8–91.3)
Serum p-cresyl sulfate, µM46.4 (20.3–91.3)
Serum indoxyl sulfate, µM9.6 (5.1–18.8)
  • Main demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics of the study population. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or median (interquartile range) as appropriate. Differences were tested using parametric ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis test, or chi-squared test as appropriate. MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration.