Table 5.

Pooled odds ratio for mortality in patients with AKI relative to patients without AKI in studies that adopted a KDIGO-equivalent AKI definition

SubgroupStudies (n)Patients with AKI (n)Deaths (n)Patients without AKI (n)Deaths (n)Pooled Odds Ratio95% Confidence IntervalP ValueTest for Heterogeneity
I2 IndexQ Test
P Value
Age category
 Adults81403,88098,3481,760,31191,9154.924.07 to 5.93<0.00199.6<0.001
 Children11173626052631585.573.49 to 8.89<0.00154.7<0.001
Clinical setting
 Community acquired438751,72417,20269782.561.31 to 5.010.0195.9<0.001
 Critical care24182,39346,880269,61328,9233.933.12 to 4.96<0.00199.28<0.001
 Cardiac surgery2221,402185264,77611186.314.81 to 8.28<0.00187.3<0.001
 Trauma3238759311,9898946.621.75 to 24.990.0198.9<0.001
 Heart failure122147461522.131.38 to 3.270.001
 Hematology/oncology22787616042715.508.40 to 28.60<0.00137.50.21
 Nephrotoxins1811221121402.451.30 to 4.630.01
 Hospital acquired, unspecified35194,97947,4241,397,81753,9415.153.86 to 6.87<0.00199.4<0.001
Continent
 Australia and New Zealand6136,88833,190210,28921,4133.342.14 to 5.22< 0.00199.8<0.001
 Asia1013,7023424208,45753748.104.78 to 13.71<0.00198.3<0.001
 Europe3344,52513,743150,66710,7765.214.39 to 6.18<0.00195.0<0.001
 America41207,12046,3371,194,23253,8324.573.30 to 6.33<0.00199.5<0.001
 Multiple continents23381191419296782.121.42 to 3.16<0.00182.80.02
World zonea
 Australia and New Zealand6136,88833,190210,28921,4133.342.14 to 5.22<0.00199.8<0.001
 Eastern Asia611,1333023182,81050626.733.41 to 13.29<0.00198.9<0.001
 Western Asia2201133323,9783039.182.95 to 28.62<0.00187.20.01
 South Asia2558681669949.450.57 to 4275.160.0989.50.002
 Eastern Europe263911119611316.063.896 to 9.43<0.00136.20.21
 Western Europe94473111416,7329556.253.93 to 9.94<0.00190.9<0.001
 Northern Europe87764100568,55420085.703.95 to 8.24<0.00185.6<0.001
 Southern Europe1146391410937114104.733.23 to 6.92<0.00190.2<0.001
 Multi-zone Europe327,01010,10354,04962724.342.84 to 6.64<0.00199.2<0.001
 North America38206,46046,2041,193,39753,7694.493.21 to 6.29<0.00199.5<0.001
 South America3660133835635.642.18 to 14.62<0.00165.60.06
 Multiple zones23381191419296782.121.42 to 3.16<0.00182.80.02
Latitude
 North82267,60465,1071,554,13670,5125.154.29 to 6.19<0.00199.2<0.001
 South9137,54833,323211,12421,4763.712.50 to 5.51<0.00199.7<0.001
 North and South1464178314851.681.23 to 2.290.001
Country income classificationb
 Low income13993264896.192.92 to 13.11<0.001
 Lower middle income11593610210597.3736.43 to 9796.52<0.001
 Upper middle income911,3363064181,13550516.573.68 to 11.74<0.00198.2<0.001
 High income80389,62993,9871,570,07985,3834.733.89 to 5.75<0.00199.6<0.001
 Not available14093148912,69116303.883.57 to 4.21<0.001
Country total health expenditure (% of GDP)c
 <5362011379175,079413313.858.76 to 21.89<0.00187.4<0.001
 5–1042191,21349,672401,89432,6564.693.83 to 5.74<0.00199.1<0.001
 >1046204,10946,0681,175,91053,6544.833.54 to 6.59<0.00199.4<0.001
 Not available14093148912,69116303.883.57 to 4.21<0.001
Duration of follow-up (mo)
 <379390,22193,7501,725,37682,0925.584.60 to 6.76<0.00199.5<0.001
 3–634178169516,94769132.251.09 to 4.680.0394.8<0.001
 >61011,217316323,25130682.742.09 to 3.58<0.00193.9<0.001
  • KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; GDP, gross domestic product.

  • a According to the United Nations geo-scheme classification (11).

  • b According to the World Bank's classification of income of countries (12).

  • c According to the World Health Organization (14).