Table 1.

Characteristics of Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with and without CKD by apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) status

CharacteristicCKDNo CKD
aTRH (n=880)No aTRH (n=2254)P ValueaTRH (n=1032)No aTRH (n=6534)P Value
Age, yr69.1 (8.9)69.6 (9.2)0.1466.3 (8.1)64.5 (8.5)<0.001
Women, %48.356.3<0.00151.458.9<0.001
Black race, %60.346.4<0.00158.946.0<0.001
Region, %
 Nonbelt45.945.00.8643.542.10.49
 Belt33.033.10.8636.135.90.49
 Buckle21.121.90.8620.422.00.49
Income<$20,000, %28.323.50.1022.517.5<0.001
Less than high school education, %21.017.70.0118.212.2<0.001
Waist circumference, cm104.5 (16.7)99.6 (15.9)<0.001103.7 (16.0)97.5 (14.6)<0.001
Diabetes, %52.738.1<0.00136.322.6<0.001
Current smoking, %13.212.90.6910.412.90.05
Current alcohol use, %28.129.90.3433.835.40.31
Physical activity, %
 4+ times/wk20.324.50.0226.528.50.08
 1–3 times/wk32.132.10.0235.036.70.08
 None47.643.40.0238.534.90.08
History of myocardial infarction, %27.920.4<0.00123.013.1<0.001
History of stroke, %16.812.50.0019.76.5<0.001
Statin use, %58.245.8<0.00147.941.3<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl178.9 (39.8)185.5 (40.3)<0.001181.4 (37.5)186.7 (38.7)<0.001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl46.5 (14.8)49.5 (15.8)<0.00149.7 (14.6)51.2 (15.7)0.004
C-reactive protein, mg/L3.1 (1.4, 6.9)3.0 (1.3, 6.7)0.132.6 (1.2, 5.7)2.4 (1.1, 5.5)0.07
Systolic BP, mmHg143.7 (19.4)124.1 (10.0)<0.001140.9 (17.1)123.0 (9.9)<0.001
Diastolic BP, mmHg79.1 (12.1)73.7 (8.2)<0.00180.8 (11.1)75.1 (7.5)<0.001
Estimated GFR, ml/min per 1.73 m260.8 (23.5)64.7 (24.3)<0.00187.3 (15.6)88.6 (15.3)0.01
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio, mg/g64.1 (21.0, 256.3)36.1 (9.0, 88.9)<0.0018.3 (5.3, 14.1)6.5 (4.5, 10.3)<0.001
  • Numbers are mean (SD) or percent, except for C-reactive protein and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, which are presented as median (25th percentile, 75th percentile). CKD is defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio≥30 mg/g or an estimated GFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.