Table 4.

Meta-regression analyses examining the association of AKI incidence rate according to the KDIGO-equivalent definition and its associated mortality rate with aggregate study- and country-level characteristics

CharacteristicRate Change (%)95% Confidence IntervalP Value
AKI incidence rate
 Country percentage GDP spent on total health expenditure (per 1% ↑)0.540.07 to 1.020.03
 Country gross national income per capita (per $10,000 ↑)0.18−0.90 to 1.270.74
 Year of study publication (per year ↑)−2.02−2.83 to −1.22<0.001
AKI-associated mortality rate
 Country percentage GDP spent on total health expenditure (per 1% ↑)−1.36−1.97 to −0.75<0.001
 Country gross national income per capita (per $10,000 ↑)−3.43−4.63 to −2.23<0.001
 Year of study publication (per year ↑)−1.46−2.69 to −0.240.02
  • GDP, gross domestic product.