Table 3.

Baseline and changes in secondary outcome measures

Lifestyle Intervention GroupControl GroupP Value
BaselineΔ 12 moBaselineΔ 12 mo
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Weight (kg)92.6±22.5−1.8±4.292.7±24.10.7±3.70.01
 Height (cm)168.6±9.9−0.0±0.8167.3±9.0−0.2±1.00.51
 BMI (kg/m2)32.5±6.8−0.6±1.433.0±8.00.3±1.40.01
 Waist (cm)106.9±18.5−1.4±5.5107.6±17.91.6±5.00.01
 Serum creatinine (µmol/L)157.7±37.54.6±30.0150.1±33.33.4±26.60.85
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)38.4±8.8−1.4±7.539.4±8.90.5±6.90.26
 Serum albumin (g/L)36.7±3.60.7±3.837.8±3.41.0±2.40.70
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)7.2±3.9−1.0±3.26.5±2.60.3±2.80.07
 HbA1c (DM only, n=30) (%) 7.3±1.20.1±1.37.3±1.20.8±1.60.18
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.7±1.1−0.0±0.71.8±1.00.2±1.30.42
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.5±1.0−0.2±1.04.4±1.10.0±1.00.48
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.2±0.50.0±0.21.1±0.30.0±0.20.55
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.5±0.8−0.2±0.92.5±1.00.0±0.80.29
Echocardiography
 Mitral E wave (cm/s)67.7±17.20.03±0.0375.0±18.7−0.07±0.030.03
 Mitral A wave (cm/s)70.1±29.5−0.02±0.0276.4±23.50.04±0.020.07
 E/A1.01±0.290.11±0.071.05±0.36−0.17±0.040.002
 Deceleration time (m/s)240.6±52.2−14.5±7.8240.0±39.716.2±7.50.01
 LA Vol index (cm3/m2)37.3±13.4−1.0±7.440.2±11.5−3.0±9.30.65
 EDV index (ml/m2)45.0±14.9−1.8±7.545.4±12.811.3±10.5<0.001
 ESV index (ml/m2)16.4±8.9−0.7±3.914.9±5.9−3.0±4.40.03
 Ejection fraction (%)64±13.1±1.368±11.2±1.50.19
 LV mass index (g/m2.7)55.2±15.8−3.9±2.154.6±12.9−3.0±2.90.98
 S’ (cm/s)6.13±1.20.01±0.016.28±1.170.0±0.00.50
 e’ (cm/s)5.59±1.50.75±1.165.88±1.4−0.47±1.00.001
 E/e’13.6±9.4−1.8±1.113.6±4.9−0.26±3.70.30
 Global longitudinal strain (%)−18.4±3.9−0.4±0.7−19.5±2.81.3±0.50.05
 Average global strain rate (s−1)−1.09±0.20.1±0.0−1.12±0.190.0±0.00.45
Hemodynamic
 Peripheral SBP (mmHg)128.8±16.1−2.4±16.2132.3±12.4−0.5±17.50.65
 Peripheral DBP (mmHg)74.9±8.10.6±10.671.1±9.43.2±8.20.78
 Central SBP (mmHg)117.8±14.3−1.9±14.6119.5±12.8−0.4±17.00.71
 Central DBP (mmHg)75.9±8.20.9±10.473.0±10.23.2±8.40.65
 AIx (%)25.7±10.4−0.2±8.524.5±8.1−1.0.±8.50.73
 Heart rate (bpm)68.5±13.6−2.4±9.966.0±9.31.1±8.50.18
Pulse wave velocity
 Aortic (m/s)9.2±2.10.4±1.49.8±2.30.1±2.00.85
Ventricular-arterial interaction
 EA (mmHg/ml)2.3±0.70.1±0.82.2±0.60.8±1.00.01
 ELV (mmHg/ml)4.8±2.80.2±1.74.7±1.61.0±2.00.11
 EA/ELV0.57±0.2−0.0±0.10.49±0.10.03±0.20.46
  • Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed values, or median (IQR) for non-normally distributed data. P value indicates significant difference in Δ between groups. BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated GFR; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; DM, diabetes mellitus; E/A, mitral E wave to mitral A wave ratio; LA, left atrial; EDV, end diastolic volume; ESV, end systolic volume; LV, left ventricular; S’, systolic tissue velocity; e’, diastolic tissue velocity; E/e’, estimated left ventricle filling pressures; SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; Aix, augmentation index; EA; arterial elastance, ELV; LV end systolic elastance. VLDL, very low density lipoproteins.