Table 3.

Frail renal phenotype

Karnofsky score<50 (disabled; requires special care and assistance)
Older age compared with 80–84 years: 85–89 years, RR=1.22 (95% CI=1.20 to 1.24); ≥90 years, RR=1.56 (95% CI=1.51 to 1.61)
Presence of geriatric susceptibility factors (syndromes)
Nonambulatory status (RR=1.54, 95% CI=1.49 to 1.58)
Positive frailty testing
Serum albumin<35 g/L (RR=1.28, 95% CI=1.25 to 1.30)
Significant symptom burden
“Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next year?” No
Low survival probabilities by
Comorbidity scores: CCI≥8 (36); FREIN clinical score≥9 (37)
Hemodialysis mortality predictor (35)
Four chronic conditions (RR=1.68, 95% CI=1.64 to 1.72)
Nursing home patient (6)
  • RR, relative risk for death (5); CCI, Charleson comorbidity score; FREIN, French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network 6-Month Prognosis Clinical Score. Modified from reference 34, with permission.