Table 2.

Relative risk of kidney stones according to categories of consumption of different beverages

<1/wk1/wk2–4/wk5–6/wk≥1/dP Value Trend
Sugar-sweetened cola
 Cases (IR)2962 (149)555 (193)443 (236)117 (262)385 (287)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.20 (1.00 to 1.44)1.41 (1.27 to 1.57)1.52 (1.18 to 1.95)1.77 (1.40 to 2.22)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.07 (0.89 to 1.27)1.19 (1.06 to 1.34)1.28 (1.09 to 1.50)1.23 (0.98 to 1.55)0.02
Artificially sweetened cola
 Cases (IR)2381 (174)454 (166)564 (170)181 (174)882 (158)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.93 (0.75 to 1.14)0.98 (0.82 to 1.17)0.94 (0.80 to 1.12)0.87 (0.76 to 1.00)0.05
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.85 to 1.21)1.05 (0.95 to 1.17)1.03 (0.87 to 1.21)0.91 (0.78 to 1.06)0.08
Sugar-sweetened noncola
 Cases (IR)3697 (159)423 (228)209 (233)41 (267)92 (306)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.38 (1.15 to 1.65)1.37 (1.18 to 1.59)1.66 (1.21 to 2.28)1.89 (1.29 to 2.78)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.17 (1.00 to 1.38)1.07 (0.89 to 1.29)1.22 (0.88 to 1.68)1.33 (1.01 to 1.74)0.003
Artificially sweetened noncola
 Cases (IR)3383 (169)360 (155)361 (179)96 (165)262 (174)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.85 to 1.06)1.10 (0.89 to 1.35)1.02 (0.66 to 1.57)1.13 (0.90 to 1.41)0.15
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.85 to 1.13)1.13 (0.98 to 1.30)1.04 (0.67 to 1.61)1.17 (0.98 to 1.41)0.05
Coffee
 Cases (IR)2044 (205)160 (201)269 (198)146 (185)1843 (137)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.94 (0.80 to 1.10)0.92 (0.81 to 1.04)0.87 (0.72 to 1.05)0.68 (0.61 to 0.77)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.82 to 1.14)0.94 (0.80 to 1.11)0.84 (0.64 to 1.11)0.74 (0.69 to 0.80)<0.001
Decaffeinated coffee
 Cases (IR)3098 (180)233 (178)285 (169)97 (143)749 (136)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.84 to 1.10)0.91 (0.70 to 1.18)0.80 (0.64 to 1.01)0.78 (0.68 to 0.90)0.01
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.89 to 1.18)0.92 (0.74 to 1.15)0.77 (0.63 to 0.95)0.84 (0.77 to 0.91)0.01a
Tea
 Cases (IR)2467 (170)438 (184)460 (170)209 (206)888 (155)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.09 (0.96 to 1.24)1.01 (0.90 to 1.14)1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)0.94 (0.87 to 1.01)0.33
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)1.01 (0.90 to 1.13)1.14 (0.99 to 1.32)0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)0.02
Red wine
 Cases (IR)3944 (174)260 (160)179 (132)36 (125)43 (96)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.82 (0.65 to 1.04)0.70 (0.60 to 0.81)0.55 (0.26 to 1.18)0.53 (0.39 to 0.72)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.84 to 1.12)0.88 (0.72 to 1.06)0.74 (0.37 to 1.50)0.69 (0.51 to 0.95)0.004
White wine
 Cases (IR)3657 (178)391 (161)291 (140)54 (110)69 (84)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.85 (0.73 to 0.98)0.75 (0.63 to 0.89)0.62 (0.47 to 0.81)0.52 (0.39 to 0.69)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.88 to 1.12)0.93 (0.76 to 1.15)0.77 (0.58 to 1.01)0.67 (0.55 to 0.85)0.002
Beer
 Cases (IR)3880 (168)260 (188)199 (183)56 (207)67 (138)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.87 (0.68 to 1.11)0.66 (0.45 to 0.97)0.82 (0.63 to 1.08)0.55 (0.43 to 0.70)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.81 to 1.19)0.76 (0.56 to 1.04)0.91 (0.68 to 1.22)0.59 (0.46 to 0.76)<0.001
Liquor
 Cases (IR)3742 (170)216 (153)242 (178)76 (171)186 (159)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.80 (0.65 to 0.99)0.92 (0.78 to 1.08)0.85 (0.67 to 1.07)0.85 (0.73 to 0.99)0.15
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.90 (0.77 to 1.06)1.04 (0.86 to 1.26)0.90 (0.71 to 1.14)0.88 (0.75 to 1.04)0.21
Apple juice
 Cases (IR)3639 (164)431 (187)282 (214)54 (228)56 (191)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.89 to 1.22)1.18 (0.91 to 1.54)1.20 (0.87 to 1.66)0.97 (0.60 to 1.56)0.31
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.86 to 1.15)1.11 (0.89 to 1.39)1.11 (0.76 to 1.61)0.93 (0.61 to 1.41)0.58
Grapefruit juice
 Cases (IR)3899 (168)258 (175)181 (170)43 (164)81 (186)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.06 (0.89 to 1.25)1.01 (0.87 to 1.18)0.99 (0.73 to 1.35)1.10 (0.85 to 1.44)0.26
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)1.06 (0.90 to 1.24)1.02 (0.87 to 1.19)0.99 (0.73 to 1.35)1.15 (0.86 to 1.55)0.22
Orange juice
 Cases (IR)2094 (167)605 (185)717 (175)271 (173)775 (158)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.82 to 1.27)0.96 (0.88 to 1.04)0.95 (0.83 to 1.08)0.90 (0.77 to 1.04)0.02
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.79 to 1.21)0.91 (0.83 to 1.00)0.90 (0.79 to 1.02)0.88 (0.79 to 0.98)0.004
Tomato juice
 Cases (IR)3917 (168)342 (180)147 (170)22 (147)34 (164)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.05 (0.86 to 1.29)1.03 (0.81 to 1.31)0.90 (0.59 to 1.37)1.00 (0.60 to 1.65)0.81
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.82 to 1.32)1.02 (0.77 to 1.35)0.90 (0.59 to 1.38)1.01 (0.58 to 1.77)0.92
Other juice
 Cases (IR)3140 (161)542 (195)465 (199)112 (179)203 (181)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.18 (1.07 to 1.29)1.22 (1.11 to 1.35)1.11 (0.92 to 1.34)1.12 (0.97 to 1.29)0.03
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)1.14 (1.01 to 1.29)1.18 (1.06 to 1.31)1.03 (0.85 to 1.25)1.05 (0.90 to 1.21)0.14
Punch
 Cases (IR)3201 (158)490 (194)408 (205)125 (228)238 (226)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.20 (1.09 to 1.32)1.33 (1.11 to 1.58)1.47 (1.23 to 1.76)1.44 (1.19 to 1.74)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.10 (0.99 to 1.21)1.15 (1.00 to 1.32)1.21 (1.01 to 1.46)1.18 (1.01 to 1.37)0.04
Whole milk
 Cases (IR)4042 (168)128 (196)136 (180)30 (147)126 (183)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.17 (0.96 to 1.43)1.09 (0.83 to 1.42)0.90 (0.63 to 1.29)1.10 (0.92 to 1.32)0.36
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)1.08 (0.89 to 1.31)0.95 (0.74 to 1.22)0.79 (0.55 to 1.13)0.99 (0.82 to 1.19)0.40
Skim milk
 Cases (IR)1904 (179)242 (179)645 (179)297 (166)1374 (152)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.92 (0.75 to 1.13)0.92 (0.84 to 1.01)0.86 (0.76 to 0.98)0.80 (0.75 to 0.86)<0.001
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.79 to 1.16)0.98 (0.89 to 1.08)0.94 (0.83 to 1.07)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)0.11
Water
 Cases (IR)447 (204)124 (186)261 (196)195 (193)3435 (162)
 Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.89 (0.73 to 1.09)0.95 (0.81 to 1.10)0.94 (0.76 to 1.15)0.83 (0.73 to 0.95)0.002
 Multivariate HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.88 (0.72 to 1.08)0.95 (0.81 to 1.11)0.94 (0.79 to 1.12)0.90 (0.81 to 1.00)0.17
  • Model adjusted for age, race, region of residence, body mass index, use of furosemide, use of thiazides, high BP, diabetes, gout, intake of calcium, potassium, phytate, animal protein, and vitamin C, total calories, and profession (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study); it was mutually adjusted for all the beverages. IR, incidence rate (cases/100,000 person-years); HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Significant heterogeneity between study-specific coefficients.

  • b No adjustment for potassium.

  • c No adjustment for calcium.